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  • The effect of azelaic acid (Aza) on the response of tomato plants to Alternaria solani was investigated in this study. After being treated with Aza, tomato plants were infected with A. solani, and their antioxidant, biochemical, and molecular responses were analyzed.

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  • We report the gelation propensity of three gelators derived from l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-Dopa), where the amino group is derivatized with three different fatty acids (lauric acid, palmitic acid, and azelaic acid). The long aliphatic side chains should introduce additional van der Waals interactions among the molecules, contributing to the self-assembly process. The hydrogels have been prepared with the pH change method, and both the hydrogels and the corresponding aerogels have been analyzed using several techniques. In any case, Lau-Dopa provides stronger hydrogels compared with the other gelators. This property may be ascribed to its tendency to efficiently form supramolecular β-sheet structures, as outlined by the ECD, IR, and SEM analyses. Moreover, the preliminary measurement of the apparent p displays for Lau-Dopa two plateaux, as previously observed for, one at about pH 12 and a second one at pH 7.5. Thus, its p results in two apparent p shifts of ∼8.5 and ∼4 pH units above the theoretical p, as a consequence of a multistep self-assembly pathway that correlates, in the final β-sheet-based hydrogel, with a high degree of order and stability.

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  • Microbial metabolites are an important source of tyrosinase (TYR) inhibitors because of their rich chemical diversity. However, because of the complex metabolic environment of microbial products, it is difficult to rapidly locate and identify natural TYR inhibitors. Affinity-based ligand screening is an important method for capturing active ingredients in complex samples, but ligand immobilization is an important factor affecting the screening process. In this paper, TYR was used as ligand, and the SpyTag/SpyCatcher coupling system was used to rapidly construct affinity chromatography vectors for screening TYR inhibitors and separating active components from complex samples. We successfully expressed SpyTag-TYR fusion protein and SpyCatcher protein, and incubated SpyCatcher protein with epoxy-activated agarose. The SpyTag-TYR protein was spontaneously coupled with SpyCatcher to obtain an affinity chromatography filler for immobilization of TYR, and the performance of the packaging material was characterized. Finally, compound 1 with enzyme inhibitory activity was successfully obtained from the fermentation product of marine microorganism C. Through HPLC, MS, H NMR and C NMR analyses, its structure was deduced as azelaic acid, and its activity was analyzed. The results showed that this is a feasible method for screening TYR inhibitors in complex systems.

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  • Acne vulgaris is a multifaceted disease characterized by inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions. Topical combination therapies offer a multifaceted approach to acne treatment, with synergistic effects and a broad spectrum of action against multiple factors in acne pathogenesis in one single formulation. Clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide/adapalene, a combination therapy consisting of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 3.1%, and adapalene 0.15%, is a novel treatment, the only FDA-approved triple combination drug that offers effective treatment of acne vulgaris. This review aims to provide information on clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide/adapalene and review the literature on combination topical acne medications approved in the United States. This search was conducted on topical combination therapies for acne, their efficacy, adverse effects, and impacts on quality of life with a specific focus on the newly approved clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide/adapalene and its sub-component dyads, along with other combinations. PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched for publications in 2018-2023. Primary sources were given priority, and secondary sources such as other reviews were considered to supplement any missing information. It was found that various topical dyad and triad combinations exist for acne vulgaris, including adapalene/BPO, tazarotene/clindamycin, clindamycin/BPO, adapalene/clindamycin, topical tretinoin/azelaic acid, topical tretinoin/BPO, and clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide/adapalene. Dyad and triple combinations represent a promising, convenient solution for acne management, potentially improving patient adherence due to its single formulation. Clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide/adapalene exhibited significantly high efficacy in treating both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions, a minimal side effect profile, although no significant changes in quality-of-life measures. Further research is indicated to assess its long-term efficacy and impact on other acne metrics such as cost, scarring, psychosocial implications, and impact on diverse patient populations.

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  • An immunologic system attacking the body's own tissues is a hallmark of autoimmune disorders, which encompass a wide range of unique conditions. Numerous essential biologic functions, including the regulation of the immune system, inflammation, cell division, and tissue repair, are carried out by cytokines. Natural compounds are an effective treatment for autoimmune illnesses by modulation of inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of leukocytes into the inflamed tissue. Here, anti-arthritic study was carried out using oral administration of Azelaic acid (AzA) for 28 days with doses (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model. AzA ameliorated the adjuvant-induced arthritis by decreasing arthritic score, paw volume, improved body-weight alterations and serum levels of PGE2, 5-LOX and anti-ccp. AzA showed significant down regulation of NF-κB, COX-II, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-1β, IL-6, and up regulation of IL4 and IL10. Hemoglobin and RBCs count remarkably increased and ESR, CRP, platelets, WBCs levels markedly reduced in post treatment. In addition, the weakened SOD (superoxide dismutase), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione (GSH) activity and the increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were all reversed by AzA treatment. And showed improved radiographical and histologic alterations in the structure of the joints. Molecular docking studies targeting COX-II, iNOS, TNF-α, 5-LOX, IL4, IL10, IL-6, and IL-17 establish a correlation between theoretical and experimental results. Results showed that AzA inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines (COX-II, TNF-α, 5-LOX, IL-17, NF-κB, IL-1β, and IL-6) and increase anti-inflammatory cytokines, which supported the anti-arthritic and immunomodulatory potential of AzA.

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  • Metabolites exploration of the ethyl acetate extract of Fusarium solani culture broth that was isolated from Euphorbia tirucalli root afforded five compounds; 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), tyrosol (3), azelaic acid (4), malic acid (5), and fusaric acid (6). Fungal extract as well as its metabolites were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperpigmentation potential via in vitro cyclooxygenases and tyrosinase inhibition assays, respectively. Azelaic acid (4) exhibited powerful and selective COX-2 inhibition followed by fusaric acid (6) with IC values (2.21 ± 0.06 and 4.81 ± 0.14 μM, respectively). As well, azelaic acid (4) had the most impressive tyrosinase inhibitory effect with IC value of 8.75 ± 0.18 μM compared to kojic acid (IC = 9.27 ± 0.19 μM). Exclusive computational studies of azelaic acid and fusaric acid with COX-2 were in good accord with the in vitro results. Interestingly, this is the first time to investigate and report the potential of compounds 3-6 to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes. One of the most invasive forms of skin cancer is melanoma, a molecular docking study using a set of enzymes related to melanoma suggested pirin to be therapeutic target for azelaic acid and fusaric acid as a plausible mechanism for their anti-melanoma activity.

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  • Rosacea: Common Questions and Answers.

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of the central face, affecting 5% of the population. The exact etiology is unknown. A diagnosis is made based on the updated 2017 National Rosacea Society Expert Committee guidelines, including fixed erythema, phymatous changes of skin thickening due to sebaceous gland hyperplasia and fibrosis, papules, pustules, telangiectasia, and flushing. Delays in an accurate diagnosis and treatment may occur in skin of color due to difficulty visualizing erythema and telangiectasia. The daily use of sunscreen, moisturizers, and mild skin cleansers and avoidance of triggers are essential aspects of maintenance treatment. Effective topical treatment options include alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists for flushing and ivermectin, metronidazole, and azelaic acid for papules and pustules. Systemic treatments include nonselective beta blockers for flushing, low-dose doxycycline, and isotretinoin for papules and pustules. Rosacea can significantly affect a patient's emotional health and quality of life. A referral for care is recommended for fixed phymatous changes and ocular rosacea. (Am Fam Physician. 2024;109(6):533-542.

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  • Fibrotic interstitial lung disease is often identified late due to non-specific symptoms, inadequate access to specialist care, and clinical unawareness precluding proper and timely treatment. Biopsy histological analysis is definitive but rarely performed due to its invasiveness. Diagnosis typically relies on high-resolution computed tomography, while disease progression is evaluated via frequent pulmonary function testing. This study tested the hypothesis that pulmonary fibrosis diagnosis and progression could be non-invasively and accurately evaluated from the hair metabolome, with the longer-term goal to minimize patient discomfort.

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  • Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder centered on hair follicles, making hair follicle-targeted delivery of anti-acne drugs a promising option for acne treatment. However, current researches have only focused on the delivering to healthy hair follicles, which are intrinsically different from pathologically clogged hair follicles in acne vulgaris.

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  • Chinese medicinal preparations play an equally important role in reducing toxicity and treating tumors. Few studies discriminate the quality markers(Q-markers) conferring different therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparations. Therefore, we take Aidi Injection(AD) as an example to comprehensively identify the Q-markers of anti-tumor and cardioprotective effects based on the "spider web" mode. Firstly, based on the principle of measurability, the chemical components in the prescription were qualitatively analyzed, and then the components with high content and capable to be measured were quantitatively analyzed as measurable evaluation indexes. Based on the principle of stability, the effects of light and temperature on the content of each component of AD were investigated as indicators of stability. Based on the principle of compatibility, the compounds were classified according to the law of compatibility of sovereign, minister, assistant, and guide medicinal materials in the prescription. Based on the principle of efficacy, the anti-tumor and antiangiogenic activities of the Q-markers were evaluated, and their synergistic effects with doxorubicin(DOX) in inhibiting tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and lowering cardiotoxicity were evaluated as the evaluation indexes of effectiveness. The seven-dimensional spider web of "compatibility-content-stability-antitumor activity-synergistic anti-tumor activity with DOX-antiangiogenic activity-synergistic anti-angiogenic activity with DOX" and the four-dimensional spider web of "compatibility-content-stability-protective effects against DOX-induced myocardial toxicity" were established, on the basis of which the Q-markers of anti-tumor and cardioprotective effects of AD were comprehensively analyzed. The results showed that 12 components were selected as the Q-markers of AD, among which cantharidin, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rb_1, astragaloside Ⅱ, cryptochlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rg_2 were the anti-tumor Q-markers of AD. Ginsenoside Rd, isofraxidin, syringin, eleutheroside E, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, and azelaic acid were the cardioprotective Q-markers of AD. Taking into account both the anti-tumor and cardioprotective effects, these Q-markers could cover the four herbs constituting the prescription. The findings provides a scientific basis for the quality control of AD and an effective method for identifying comprehensive and reasonable Q-markers for the two effects of Chinese medicinal preparations.

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