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  • The aim of our study was to investigate whether the combination of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and resveratrol (RES) has a synergistic effect on the inhibition of inflammation in colitis. The results revealed that the BITC and RES combination (BITC_RES) was more effective than either substance alone at significantly alleviating the symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, including the prevention of colon shortening and loss of body weight, a reduction in the disease activity index, and prevention of colon damage. Similarly, compared with the DSS group, BITC_RES reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in the mouse colon by 1.4-3.0-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. In addition, the combination of BITC and RES upregulated the inflammatory factor IL-10 by 1.3- and 107.4-fold, respectively, compared to the individual BITC and RES groups, whereas the proinflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, were downregulated by 1.1-7.4-, 0.7-3.6-, and 0.6-2.6-fold, respectively, in the BITC_RES group compared with the individual groups. Gut microbiome analysis indicated that BITC_RES remodeled the structure of gut bacteria at the phylum, family, and genus levels, upregulating the abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes and the family and the genus norank_f_ and downregulating the abundance of the phylum Firmicutes. Significant correlations between the relative levels of these proinflammatory cytokines and changes in the gut microbiota were found using Pearson's correlation analysis. BITC and RES exhibited synergistic effects by reshaping the gut microbiota and modulating the level of serum cellular inflammatory factors, thus exerting a protective effect against colitis.

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  • Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is a naturally active bacteriostatic substance and κ-carrageenan (KC) is a good film-forming substrate. In the present study, a nanoemulsion incorporating BITC was fabricated with a particle size of 224.1 nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 69.2 %. Subsequently, the acquired BITC nanoemulsion (BITC-NE) was incorporated into the KC-based film, and the light transmittance of the prepared composite films was lower than that of the pure KC film. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that BITC-NE was compatible with the KC matrix. BITC-NE incorporation enhanced the tensile strength of the KC-based films by 33.7 %, decreased the elongation at break by 33.8 %, decreased the water vapor permeability by 60.1 %, increased the maximum thermal degradation temperature by 48.8 %, and decreased the oxygen permeability by 42 % (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the composite films showed enhanced antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The developed KC-based composite films were applied to wrap raw beef, which significantly delayed the increase in total viable count, total volatile base nitrogen content, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and prolonged the shelf-life of the raw beef by up to 10 days. These results indicated that the composite films prepared by incorporating BITC nanoemulsions into KC matrices have great antimicrobial application potential.

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  • Postoperative adhesion is a common complication after abdominal surgery, but current clinical products have unsatisfactory therapeutic effects. Here, we present a hydrogel patch formed in a single step through dialysis. The exchange of DMSO into water facilitates hydrophobic aggregate in situ formation and the formation of hydrogen bonds within the hydrogel. Thanks to the optimized component ratio and precise structural design. The hydrogel patch has soft-tissue-like mechanical characteristics, including high strength, high toughness, low modulus similar to the abdominal wall, good fatigue resistance, and fast self-recovery properties. The nonswellable hydrogel patch retains over 80% of its original mechanical properties after 7 days of immersion in physiological saline, with a maximum swelling ratio of 5.6%. Moreover, the hydrophobic biomultifunctionality of benzyl isothiocyanate can self-assemble onto the hydrogel patch during the sol-gel transition process, enabling it to remodel the inflammatory microenvironment through synergistic antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. The hydrogel patch prevents postsurgical adhesion in a rat sidewall defect-cecum abrasion model and outperforms the leading commercial Interceed. It holds promising potential for clinical translation, considering that FDA-approved raw materials (PVA and gelatin) form the backbone of this effective hydrogel patch.

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  • Malaria remains an important and challenging infectious disease, and novel antimalarials are required. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), the main breakdown product of benzyl glucosinolate, is present in all parts of L. () and has antibacterial and antiparasitic activities. To our knowledge, there is no information on the effects of BITC against malaria. The present study evaluates the antimalarial activity of aqueous extracts of BITC and seeds, leaves, and stems. We used flow cytometry to calculate the growth inhibition (GI) percentage of the extracts and BITC against unsynchronized cultures of the chloroquine-susceptible 3D7 - GFP strain. Extracts and/or compounds with at least 70% GI were validated by IC50 estimation against 3D7 - GFP and Dd2 (chloroquine-resistant strain) unsynchronized cultures by flow cytometry, and the resistance index (RI) was determined. aqueous extracts showed some antimalarial activity that was higher in seeds than in leaves or stems. BITC's GI was comparable to chloroquine's. BITC's IC50 was similar in both strains; thus, a cross-resistance absence with aminoquinolines was found (RI < 1). BITC presented features that could open new avenues for malaria drug discovery.

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  • Due to over-prescription of antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance has emerged to be a critical concern globally. Many countries have tightened the control of antibiotic usage, which, in turn, promotes the search for alternatives to antibiotics. Quite a few phytochemicals have been investigated. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is an important secondary metabolite in cruciferous species and exhibited potent antimicrobial activity under in vitro conditions. In this research, we undertook a comparative mouse model study of BITC with gentamycin sulfate (positive antibiotic control) and ceftiofur hydrochloride (negative antibiotic control) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Our results showed that BITC exhibited comparable or better antimicrobial activity and lower infiltration of mouse immune cells upon comparing to gentamycin sulfate. Furthermore, BITC did not impose any toxicity to the air pouch skin tissues. In summary, our current study suggests that BITC could be an alternative to antibiotics and deserves further in vivo and clinical trial studies.

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  • Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) presents a therapeutic challenge due to its complex pathology and limited treatment options. Addressing this challenge, our study focuses on the effectiveness of combination therapy, which has recently become a critical strategy in cancer treatment, improving therapeutic outcomes and combating drug resistance and metastasis. We explored a novel combination therapy employing Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and Sorafenib (SOR) and their nanoformulation, aiming to enhance therapeutic outcomes against TNBC. Through a series of in vitro assays, we assessed the cytotoxic effects of BITC and SOR, both free and encapsulated. The BITC-SOR-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using an amphiphilic copolymer, which demonstrated a uniform spherical morphology and favorable size distribution. The encapsulation efficiencies, as well as the sustained release profiles at varied pH levels, were quantified, revealing distinct kinetics that were well-modeled by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The NP delivery system showed a marked dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards TNBC cells, with an IC50 of 7.8 μM for MDA-MB-231 cells, indicating improved efficacy over free drugs, while exhibiting minimal toxicity toward normal breast cells. Furthermore, the NPs significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in TNBC models, surpassing the effects of free drugs. These findings underscore the potential of BITC-SOR-NPs as a promising therapeutic approach for TNBC, offering targeted delivery while minimizing systemic toxicity.

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  • Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a prevalent refractory partial epilepsy seen in clinical practice, with most cases originating from the hippocampus and being characterized by impaired learning and memory. Oxidative stress plays a direct role in the development of epilepsy and neurodegeneration while promoting cognitive dysfunction. Previous research indicates that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) has antioxidative stress properties and contributes to neuroprotection. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of BITC on a lithium-pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epileptic mice model.

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  • Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common pathogen that can cause many serious infections. Thus, efficient and practical techniques to fight S. aureus are required. In this study, transcriptomics was used to evaluate changes in S. aureus following treatment with benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) to determine its antibacterial action. The results revealed that the BITC at subinhibitory concentrations (1/8th MIC) treated group had 94 differentially expressed genes compared to the control group, with 52 downregulated genes. Moreover, STRING analyses were used to reveal the protein interactions encoded by 36 genes. Then, we verified three significant virulence genes by qRT-PCR, including capsular polysaccharide synthesis enzyme (cp8F), capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis protein (cp5D), and thermonuclease (nuc). Furthermore, molecular docking analysis was performed to investigate the action site of BITC with the encoded proteins of cp8F, cp5D, and nuc. The results showed that the docking fraction of BITC with selected proteins ranged from - 6.00 to - 6.60 kcal/mol, predicting the stability of these complexes. BITC forms hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonded, π-π conjugated interactions with amino acids TRP (130), GLY (10), ILE (406), LYS (368), TYR (192), and ARG (114) of these proteins. These findings will aid future research into the antibacterial effects of BITC against S. aureus.

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  • Lam, commonly known as moringa, is a plant widely used both as a human food and for medicinal purposes around the world. This research aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the aqueous extract of leaves (MoAE) and benzyl isothiocyanate (BIT) in rats with induced breast cancer. Cancer was induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at a dose of 60 mg/kg by orogastric gavage once only. Forty-eight rats were randomly assigned to eight groups, each consisting of six individuals. The control group (healthy) was called Group I. Group II received DMBA plus saline. In addition to DMBA, Groups III, IV, and V received MoAE at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day, respectively, while Groups VI, VII, and VIII received BIT at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day, respectively. Treatment was carried out for 13 weeks. Secondary metabolite analysis results identified predominantly quercetin, caffeoylquinic acid, neochlorogenic acid, vitexin, and kaempferol, as well as tropone, betaine, loliolide, and vitexin. The administration of MoAE at a dose of 500 mg/kg and BIT at 20 mg/kg exhibited a notable decrease in both the total tumor count and the cumulative tumor weight, along with a delay in their onset. Furthermore, they improved the histological grade. A significant decrease in serum levels of VEGF and IL-1β levels was observed ( < 0.001) with a better effect demonstrated with MoAE at 500 mg/kg and BIT at 20 mg/kg. In conclusion, this study suggests that both the aqueous extract of leaves and the benzyl isothiocyanate possess antitumor properties against mammary carcinogenesis, and this effect could be due, at least in part, to the flavonoids and isothiocyanates present in the extract.

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  • Isothiocyanates are biologically active products resulting from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates predominantly present in cruciferous vegetables belonging to the family. Numerous studies have demonstrated the diverse bioactivities of various isothiocyanates, encompassing anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties. Nature harbors distinct isothiocyanate precursors, glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin and gluconastrin, each characterized by unique structures, physical properties, and pharmacological potentials. This comprehensive review aims to consolidate the current understanding of isothiocyanates, mainly 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate), comparing this compound with other well-studied isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane and phenyl ethyl isothiocyanates. The focus is directed toward elucidating differences and similarities in the efficacy of these compounds as agents with anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties.

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