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  • Scopoletin and chlorogenic acid (CGA) are important polyphenols that regulate plant growth, development, and stress resistance. The ERF transcription factor WAX INDUCER1 (WIN1) promotes the biosynthesis of cutin, suberine, and wax. However, its full roles in regulating the accumulation of plant secondary metabolites still remain to be further clarified. In this study, NtWIN1 gene encoding a SHINE-type AP2/ERF transcription factor of the Va subgroup was identified from N. tabacum. NtWIN1 showed high expression levels in tobacco stems, sepals, and pistils. Overexpression (OE) and knock-out of NtWIN1 showed that it promoted the accumulation of total polyphenols and altered their composition. Compare to that of WT plants, the CGA contents significantly increased by 25%-50% in the leaves, flowers, and capsules of OE lines, while the scopoletin contents in the OE plants significantly decreased by 30%-67%. In contrast, the CGA contents in ntwin1 lines reduced by 23%-26%, and the scopoletin contents in ntwin1 increased by 38%-75% compare to that of WT plants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and Dual-Luc transcription activation assays showed that NtWIN1 could bind to the promoters of NtF6'H1 and NtCCoAMT, thereby modulating their expression. The scopoletin content in ntwin1/ntf6'h1 double mutant was significantly lower than that in ntwin1 and WT plants, but showed no significant differences with that in ntf6'h1 mutant, further indicating that the inhibition of NtWIN1 on scopoletin accumulation depends on the activity of NtF6'H1. Our study illustrates the new roles of NtWIN1, and provides a possible target for regulating the synthesis of polyphenols in tobacco.

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  • Kunzea ericoides (kanuka) products are well-known for their potent medicinal values in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory applications. The present study identified various compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and (E)-ferulic acid in the kanuka leaf extract, showing its potential use in maintaining skin health. The influence of kanuka leaf extract upon epidermal cells concerning cytotoxicity and in vitro activities of moisturisation, antioxidation, UV protection, and anti-melanogenesis effects were explored in the study. Kanuka leaf extract demonstrated significant promotion in the proliferation of HaCaT and B16F10 cells. After incubation with kanuka leaf extract, the content of ROS and DPPH in HaCaT was significantly decreased; at the same time, more SOD was produced. Furthermore, hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL-1) and HYAL-4 expressions were inhibited, while the aquaporin 3 (AQP-3) content was significantly increased in HaCaT. Kanuka leaf extract also inhibited the expressions of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-14 in UV-induced HaCaT cells. In the B16F10 cell line, melanin and tyrosinase production were decreased under the presence of kanuka leaf extract, and the expressions of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TYRP-1), and TYRP-2 were also inhibited. The study validated kanuka leaf extract as an effective natural product against photoaging and melanogenesis.

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  • Yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important part in the post-harvest fermentation of coffee. This study applied lab-scale fermentation to commercial green coffee beans using dry coffee pulp as the substrate, with the aim of modifying coffee-bean flavor. In addition to spontaneous fermentation, yeast and LAB isolated from coffee beans and dried coffee pulp were added during fermentation.

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  • Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs raises the urgent need to seek for alternative treatments. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus asper leaves is currently used in malaria management but remains less documented.

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  • Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is known to be a potentially hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic contaminant in humans and other animals, whose toxicity is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of chlorogenic acid (CGA), which has known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, on potassium dichromate (PDC)-induced acute hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats.

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  • The combination of a polyphenol, quercetin, with dasatinib initiated clinical trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of senolytics in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a lung disease associated with the presence of senescent cells. Another approach to senotherapeutics consists of controlling inflammation related to cellular senescence or "inflammaging", which participates, among other processes, in establishing pulmonary fibrosis. We evaluate whether polyphenols such as caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, or resveratrol combined with different senotherapeutics such as metformin or rapamycin, and antifibrotic drugs such as nintedanib or pirfenidone, could present beneficial actions in an in vitro model of senescent MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. A senescent-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) was evaluated by the measurement of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-1β. The senescent-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity and cellular proliferation were assessed. Fibrosis was evaluated using a Picrosirius red assay and the gene expression of fibrosis-related genes. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was assayed in the A549 cell line exposed to Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β in vitro. The combination that demonstrated the best results was metformin and caffeic acid, by inhibiting IL-6 and IL-8 in senescent MRC-5 cells. Metformin and caffeic acid also restore cellular proliferation and reduce SA-β-gal activity during senescence induction. The collagen production by senescent MRC-5 cells was inhibited by epicatechin alone or combined with drugs. Epicatechin and nintedanib were able to control EMT in A549 cells. In conclusion, caffeic acid and epicatechin can potentially increase the effectiveness of senotherapeutic drugs in controlling lung diseases whose pathophysiological component is the presence of senescent cells and fibrosis.

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  • The leaves and branches of rabbiteye blueberry are rich in proanthocyanidins, which are thought to have different physiological activities depending on their structure and degree of polymerization. In this study, we analyzed the constituents of the leaves and branches of rabbiteye blueberry to determine the seasonal variations in polyphenol and proanthocyanidin (PAC) contents as well as their mean degrees of polymerization (mDP). Total PAC content was determined using two methods: The p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) method, which measures monomeric PAC, showed an increase from spring to summer in both leaves and branches. On the other hand, using the butanol/HCl method, which measures only polymerized PAC, the PAC content of leaves increased from spring to summer but those of branches remained low throughout the year, showing no significant increase or decrease. Furthermore, analysis of the mDP of PAC showed increases from spring to summer in the leaves of 'Kunisato 35 gou'. Although the highest value (8.0) was observed in October, values around 4 remained throughout the year in the branches. Since differences in polymerization degree affect absorption in the body and physiological properties such as antioxidant capacity, selecting the appropriate harvest time and plant organs for each purpose is expected to ensure the quality of processed blueberry foods.

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  • × Growth and Phenolic Acid Composition under Different Cultivation Temperatures.

    Plants of the Asteraceae family have been cultivated worldwide for economic, medicinal, and ornamental purposes, including genera such as , , and . Numerous studies examined their secondary metabolites; however, those of × , which is a natural hybrid species in South Korea, are unclear, and optimized propagation methods should be identified. We analyzed phenolic acid concentrations in each part of × through HPLC. Further, we investigated the growth characteristics and secondary metabolite concentrations under various growth temperatures using division propagation, followed by growing at 20, 25, and 30 °C in a growth chamber. Chlorogenic acid was the primary compound, which was particularly high in the leaves. The growth characteristics did not differ significantly between temperatures, and 30 °C was most efficient for phenolic acid biosynthesis. Our results provide valuable information on optimized propagation and secondary metabolite concentrations under different temperatures of × .

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  • The species of the genus present important medicinal potential according to their traditional uses. However, few studies aim to sustain this fact by scientific evidence. The present study aimed to explore the phytochemical profile and investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential of subsp. Fr. (EO) and J.P.Wolff ex J.F.Lehm (ES). The tested samples consisted of ethanolic extracts. The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds were performed using spectrophotometric and LC-MS/MS methods. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the DPPH, FRAP and xanthine oxidase methods. Antimicrobial properties were screened using disk diffusion, broth microdilution and anti-biofilm assays, while antiproliferative potential was assessed on a colorectal adenocarcinoma human cancer cell line (DLD-1). The LC-MS/MS analysis showed chlorogenic acid and rutin as the dominant constituents in the tested extracts. The antioxidant activity assays showed important capacity for both samples; in vitro antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties were exhibited, especially against Gram-positive bacteria, and an important inhibitory potential was observed on the proliferation of the DLD-1 cell line. The findings in the present study contribute to the recommendation of EO and ES for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-related pathologies, cancer and microbial infections.

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  • Analysis of Antioxidant Compounds in Leaves Using Offline 2D-LC-ECD and LC-MS/MS.

    has strong antioxidant activity, but its primary antioxidant components are not clear. In this study, the antioxidant components were screened by offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (2D-LC-ECD) and subsequently assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identification, radical scavenging capacity, and molecular docking. Various fractions were isolated from leaves, and 39 antioxidant components were screened and identified. All of the fractions containing the antioxidant components exhibited certain antioxidant activity. Correlation analysis revealed a strong correlation between the response of LC-ECD and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the fractions. Molecular docking demonstrated that components with high response to LC-ECD exhibited robust interaction with antioxidant-related target proteins. The main antioxidant components of leaves were isoorientin, chlorogenic acid, agnuside, cynaroside, and scutellarin. The 2D-LC-ECD combined with LC-MS/MS was rapid and effective in screening the antioxidant components in leaves and could also provide technical support for the discovery of antioxidant components with different polarities and contents in other medicinal and edible plants.

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