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  • The development of anti-AD drugs has attracted much attention as the number of AD patients is increasing year by year. Five diosmetin derivatives (1-5) were designed and synthesized by introducing carbamate groups. The crystal structure of 1 was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, which showed a large conjugated coplanar structure and might be favorable for the insertion into the Aβ folding. Meanwhile, in vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the anticholinesterase activity, metal chelating property, antioxidant activity, and anti-Aβ aggregation ability of 1-5. The results showed that 1-5 had good cholinesterase inhibitory activities. Compound 4 showed the highest inhibitory activities against butyrylcholinesterase (IC = 0.0760 μM). Further kinetic experiments and molecular docking studies showed that 4 could bind well to butyrylcholinesterase. The molecular dynamics simulations also signified that compared with diosmetin, 4 could reduce the flexibility of the butyrylcholinesterase protein skeleton to a greater extent, and thus had a better inhibitory effect. In addition, 1-5 could selectively chelate copper ions and all of them had good antioxidant activity as well as anti-Aβ aggregation ability. Among them, 4 had the strongest activity to inhibit Cu-induced Aβ aggregation (51.09%) and had low cytotoxicity. In addition, in vivo ROS activity assay (Caenorhabditis elegans) showed that 4 had the ability to scavenge ROS. Besides, the in vivo Aβ aggregation assay showed that 4 could reduce Aβ aggregation. In conclusion, 4 has the potential to be developed into a multifunctional anti-AD drug.

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  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevailing degenerative disease in elderly population and can lead to severe joint dysfunction. Studies have revealed various pharmacological activities of diosmetin, including the anti-OA efficacy. The present study further investigated its effect on interleukin (IL)-1β-induced OA in chondrocytes.

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  • Burns are a global health problem and can be caused by several factors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Exposure to UVB radiation can cause sunburn and a consequent inflammatory response characterised by pain, oedema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and erythema. Pharmacological treatments available to treat burns and the pain caused by them include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, antimicrobials and glucocorticoids, which are associated with adverse effects. Therefore, the search for new therapeutic alternatives is needed. Diosmetin, an aglycone of the flavonoid diosmin, has antinociceptive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, we evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of topical diosmetin (0.01, 0.1 and 1%) in a UVB radiation-induced sunburn model in mice. The right hind paw of the anaesthetised mice was exposed only once to UVB radiation (0.75 J/cm) and immediately treated with diosmetin once a day for 5 days. The diosmetin antinociceptive effect was evaluated by mechanical allodynia and pain affective-motivational behaviour, while its anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring paw oedema and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration. Mice exposed to UVB radiation presented mechanical allodynia, increased pain affective-motivational behaviour, paw oedema and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration into the paw tissue. Topical Pemulen® TR2 1% diosmetin reduced the mechanical allodynia, the pain affective-motivational behaviour, the paw oedema and the number of polymorphonuclear cells in the mice's paw tissue similar to that presented by Pemulen® TR2 0.1% dexamethasone. These findings indicate that diosmetin has therapeutic potential and may be a promising strategy for treating patients experiencing inflammatory pain, especially those associated with sunburn.

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  • Gilli is a rare annual wild herb grown in Libya. It belongs to the Apiaceae family, which is one of the largest flowering plant families. Plants of this family are outstanding sources of various secondary metabolites with various biological activities. A UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of different extracts of in vivo and in vitro tissues of together with the fruit extract of the cultivated plant in both ionization modes was carried out for the first time in the current study. Our results reveal the tentative identification of eighty-seven compounds in the tested extracts, including thirty-two phenolic acids and their derivatives; thirty-seven flavonoid glycosides and aglycones of apigenin, luteolin, diosmetin, myricetin and quercetin, containing glucose, rhamnose, pentose and/or glucuronic acid molecules; seven anthocyanins; six tannins; three acetylenic compounds; and three nitrogenous compounds. The tentative identification of the above compounds was based on the comparison of their retention times and ESI-MS/MS fragmentation patterns with those previously in the literature. For this Apiaceae plant, our results confirm the presence of a wide array of secondary metabolites with reported biological activities. This study is among the first ones to shed light on the phytoconstituents of this rare plant.

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  • Flavonoids, constituting the most extensive category of polyphenols, founds in a variety of plants and comprise over 9000 compounds. Diosmetin, O-methylated flavone (3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone) of flavonoid aglycone diosmin have witnessed a significant surge in recent years. Many studies showed that flavonoids induced cytotoxicity in different organ specific cancer types. Thus, current review evaluates the anticancer potential of diosmetin and shed light on its mechanism of action such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway, autophagy and tumour progression and metastasis. It also provides comprehensive analysis of different cancer targets and their role in breast, colon, hepatic, gliomas, leukemia, lung, prostate and skin cancer. Combination studies of diosmetin to improve drug sensitivity and reduce toxicity towards normal cells has been also discussed. Besides, in vitro studies, present review also discuss the anticancer potential of diosmetin on xenograft mice model. Different natural sources of diosmetin, limitations, pharmacokinetic analysis and toxicity study also summarized in current review. The emphasis on enhancing solubility and permeability for clinical utility has been thoroughly highlighted with particular attention given to the utilization of nano formulations to overcome existing barriers. At last, in-depth analysis of current challenges and a forward-looking perspective deliberated to address the existing gaps and position it as a promising lead compound for clinical applications in cancer treatment. This discussion is boosted by diosmetin's potential anticancer properties on different cancers, makes valuable candidates in the ongoing quest for effective therapeutic interventions against cancer.

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  • (PC) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and food, as it exerts pharmacological effects, such as immune-modulatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, and antiviral. Currently, the pharmacokinetics (PK) studies of PC mainly focus on individual components. However, research on these individual components cannot reflect the actual PK characteristics of PC after administration. Therefore, the simultaneous determination of multiple components in rat plasma using UPLC-MS/MS was used for the pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of PC extract in this study, providing reference value for the clinical application of PC. In the present study, a reliable and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 15 prototype components (vanillic acid, vitexin, verbascoside, isoacteoside, hyperoside, cosmosiin, apigenin, β-rhamnocitrin, acacetin, ombuin, pogostone, pachypodol, vicenin-2, retusin, and diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) in rat plasma after oral administration of the PC extract. Plasma samples were prepared via protein precipitation using acetonitrile, and icariin was used as the internal standard (IS). The intra-day and inter-day accuracies ranged from -12.0 to 14.3%, and the precision of the analytes was less than 11.3%. The extraction recovery rate of the analytes ranged from 70.6-104.5%, and the matrix effects ranged from 67.4-104.8%. Stability studies proved that the analytes were stable under the tested conditions, with a relative standard deviation lower than 14.1%. The developed method can be applied to evaluate the PK of 15 prototype components in PC extracts of rats after oral administration using UPLC-MS/MS, providing valuable information for the development and clinical safe, effective, and rational use of PC.

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  • Polycystic kidney disease is the most prevalent hereditary kidney disease globally and is mainly linked to the overexpression of a gene called PKD1. To date, there is no effective treatment available for polycystic kidney disease, and the practicing treatments only provide symptomatic relief. Discovery of the compounds targeting the PKD1 gene by inhibiting its expression under the disease condition could be crucial for effective drug development. In this study, a molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation, QSAR, and MM/GBSA-based approaches were used to determine the putative inhibitors of the Pkd1 enzyme from a library of 1379 compounds. Initially, fourteen compounds were selected based on their binding affinities with the Pkd1 enzyme using MOE and AutoDock tools. The selected drugs were further investigated to explore their properties as drug candidates and the stability of their complex formation with the Pkd1 enzyme. Based on the physicochemical and ADMET (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity) properties, and toxicity profiling, two compounds including olsalazine and diosmetin were selected for the downstream analysis as they demonstrated the best drug-likeness properties and highest binding affinity with Pkd1 in the docking experiment. Molecular dynamic simulation using Gromacs further confirmed the stability of olsalazine and diosmetin complexes with Pkd1 and establishing interaction through strong bonding with specific residues of protein. High biological activity and binding free energies of two complexes calculated using 3D QSAR and Schrodinger module, respectively further validated our results. Therefore, the molecular docking and dynamics simulation-based in-silico approach used in this study revealed olsalazine and diosmetin as potential drug candidates to combat polycystic kidney disease by targeting Pkd1 enzyme.

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  • Sepsis causes inflammation in response to infection, often leading to acute lung injury (ALI). Yazhicao (Commelina communis L., YZC) is widely distributed in the global tropics and has good anti-respiratory inflammatory activity; however, the protection of YZC against septic-ALI has not been established.

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  • Infertility is a condition characterized by a low fertility rate, which significantly affects the physical and mental health of women of reproductive age. Typically, the treatment duration is prolonged, and the therapeutic outcomes are often unsatisfactory. Professor Cheng-yao He, a renowned expert in traditional Chinese medicine, commonly uses the herb Cnidii Fructus (SCZ) for the treatment of infertility. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear, and there is limited research available on this topic. The active ingredients of SCZ were obtained from the traditional chinese medicine system pharmacology (TCMSP) database and screened for pharmacokinetics (PK), involving absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Target prediction was performed by SwissTargetPrediction database, and infertility-related disease targets were searched in GeneCards, TTD, DrugBank, and OMIM database. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the STRING database (Version 11.5) and analyzed by Cytoscape software (Version 3.9.1). Additionally, the target genes were subjected to biological enrichment analysis in the Metascape database, including gene ontology (GO) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, and the "Disease-Ingredient-pathway-target" network was constructed using Cytoscape software. With the assistance of AutoDockVina, Ligplot, and PyMOL software, a validation of Molecular docking results and a visualization of the results were performed. This study identified 11 retained active ingredients of SCZ, 447 drug targets, 233 of which were related to infertility, and 5393 disease targets. GO enrichment analysis mainly involved 221 biological processes such as cellular response to chemical stress and gland development. KEGG enrichment analysis mainly involved 68 pathways such as thyroid hormone signaling pathway, estrogen signaling pathway, FOXO signaling pathway, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Molecular docking showed that the core active ingredients of SCZ, including Ammidin, Diosmetin, Xanthoxylin N, and Prangenidin, had strong binding abilities with core targets such as MDM2, MTOR, CCND1, EGFR, and AKT1. This study preliminarily demonstrated that SCZ may act on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, exerting its therapeutic effects on infertility by improving energy metabolism disorders and endometrial receptivity, inducing primordial follicle activation, regulating oocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and promoting the release of dominant follicles.

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  • Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) is a popular herb with reported effectiveness against diarrhea, anxiety and constipation, albeit with limited pharmacological evidence.

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