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  • <b>Introduction:</b> Hemorrhoidal disease is the most common disease treated in proctology ambulatories. Conservative treatment is the basic form of treatment for this disease. One of the elements of treatment may be preparations with myoand phlebotropic effects.<b>Aim:</b> To assess the effect of a multi-ingredient myophlebotropic dietary supplement used as an adjunct on the rate and effectiveness of symptom relief in patients with stage II and III hemorrhoidal disease.<b>Material and method:</b> Patients with stage II and III hemorrhoidal disease with clinical symptoms such as pain, burning, itching and bleeding were qualified for the study. The patients were divided into two groups. The control group (Group I) of 29 patients receiving standard local treatment plus placebo and the study group (Group II) of 32 patients receiving the same local treatment and a six-component myophlebotropic product. Symptoms were analyzed at the time of inclusion in the study (day 0), after 4 and 10 days of therapy. The severity of hemorrhoidal disease and the feeling of relief were assessed on the day of inclusion (W0) and after 30 days of therapy.<b>Results:</b> There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of disease advancement, age, gender, and duration of symptoms. Compared to the moment of inclusion in the study (W0), after 4 days (W1), after 10 days (W2) of taking the multi- -component product, there was a statistically significant improvement in the VAS scale: spontaneous pain and pain during defecation. In the qualitative assessment (yes/no), there were statistically significantly fewer cases of burning in the anus and itching. The treatment did not affect the rate of spontaneous bleeding, which was low at the beginning of the study, but significantly reduced the rate of bleeding during defecation. After 30 days of observation, it was found that the improvement in the severity of hemorrhoidal disease symptoms was significantly higher in the group using the tested preparation. Relief after a month of the study (one-question method) was noted in the group of patients receiving the tested product.<b>Conclusions:</b> The tested six-component myophlebotropic product proved to be effective in reducing the severity of symptoms such as spontaneous pain, pain during defecation, burning/burning in the anus and bleeding during defecation. Statistical significance was demonstrated in the symptom's relief and reduction in the severity of hemorrhoidal disease.

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  • Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is associated with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). The efficacy of flavonoids for treating PCS symptoms is still a matter of debate, and little has been published. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a mixture of diosmin, troxerutin, and hesperidin in improving symptoms of patients with PCS, observing a direct effect on circulation by specific color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) evaluations.

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  • This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion and of open-pan cooking on whole germinated and non-germinated grains of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br.), on its chemical-nutritional composition and in vitro iron bioavailability. The experimental design consisted of three flours: non-germination open-pan cooked millet flour (NGOPCMF), germination open-pan cooked millet flour (GOPCMF), and extrusion cooked millet flour (ECMF). The ECMF increased the carbohydrates, iron, manganese, diosmin, and cyanidin and decreased the total dietary fiber, resistant starch, lipids, and total vitamin E, in relation to NGOPCMF. The GOPCMF increased the lysine and vitamin C and decreased the phytate, lipids, total phenolic, total vitamin E, and riboflavin concentration, in relation to NGOPCMF. Furthermore, germinated cooked millet flour and extruded millet flour improved iron availability in vitro compared to non-germinated cooked millet flour. GOPCMF and ECMF generally preserved the chemical-nutritional composition of pearl millet and improved in vitro iron bioavailability; therefore, they are nutritionally equivalent and can be used to develop pearl millet-based products.

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  • Inhibition of ACE is considered as one of the main strategies to reduce hypertension. ACE inhibitors derived from () present a novel antihypertensive agent source. This study employed 3D-QSAR pharmacophore, metabolomics, docking-based screening, and molecular dynamics simulations to identify ACE inhibitors from . A set of 53 known molecules was chemically diverse to construct a 3D-QSAR model for predictive purposes. was characterized using UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-LC-MS techniques, 211 and 586 kinds of bioactive metabolites were identified, respectively. A total of 680 compounds were collected for database construction and virtual screening. An ADMET assessment was conducted to evaluate drug-likeness and pharmacokinetics parameters. Moreover, molecular docking results show that six top hit compounds bind to ACE tightly. Specially, diosmin could interact with ACE by hydrogen bond, Pi-cation bond, and metal bond. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and MMPBSA calculations were subsequently employed to elucidate complex stability and the interaction between diosmin and ACE, indicating it a strong ACE inhibitory activity. In conclusion, this study suggests that represents a potential source of antihypertensive agents.

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  • Burns are a global health problem and can be caused by several factors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Exposure to UVB radiation can cause sunburn and a consequent inflammatory response characterised by pain, oedema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and erythema. Pharmacological treatments available to treat burns and the pain caused by them include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, antimicrobials and glucocorticoids, which are associated with adverse effects. Therefore, the search for new therapeutic alternatives is needed. Diosmetin, an aglycone of the flavonoid diosmin, has antinociceptive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, we evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of topical diosmetin (0.01, 0.1 and 1%) in a UVB radiation-induced sunburn model in mice. The right hind paw of the anaesthetised mice was exposed only once to UVB radiation (0.75 J/cm) and immediately treated with diosmetin once a day for 5 days. The diosmetin antinociceptive effect was evaluated by mechanical allodynia and pain affective-motivational behaviour, while its anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring paw oedema and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration. Mice exposed to UVB radiation presented mechanical allodynia, increased pain affective-motivational behaviour, paw oedema and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration into the paw tissue. Topical Pemulen® TR2 1% diosmetin reduced the mechanical allodynia, the pain affective-motivational behaviour, the paw oedema and the number of polymorphonuclear cells in the mice's paw tissue similar to that presented by Pemulen® TR2 0.1% dexamethasone. These findings indicate that diosmetin has therapeutic potential and may be a promising strategy for treating patients experiencing inflammatory pain, especially those associated with sunburn.

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  • Reproductive deficiency is a major outcome of pesticide exposure sequel to cellular oxidative damage to sex organs. Flavonoid possess potent antioxidant capacities to mitigate pesticide related cellular injury. The present investigation examined the mitigative effect of micronized purified fractions of diosmin and hesperidin on reproductive hormones, sperm parameters, and testicular glycogen in male Wistar rats after sub-chronic Chlorpyriphos (CPF) exposure. Twenty-five male Wistar rats (120-145 g) were randomly allocated five rats per group. Group I (DW) received distilled water (2 ml/kg), Group II (S/oil) received soya oil (2 ml/kg), Group III (DAF) received Daflon at 1000 mg/kg, Group IV (CPF) received Chlorpyriphos (7.74 mg/kg), and Group V (DAF + CPF) received Daflon (1000 mg/kg) followed by CPF (7.74 mg/kg) after 30 min of Daflon. This regimen was administered daily for 60 days. After cervical venesection under light chloroform anesthesia, blood samples were examined for levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. Each rat's testicular tissue was quickly cut, collected, and glycogen evaluated. Sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and viability were measured in the right caudal epididymis. Results revealed that the untreated CPF group had significantly lower FSH, LH, testosterone, testicular glycogen, and sperm concentration. Additionally, CPF group sperm characteristics were abnormal compared to other groups. These reproductive hormones, testicular glycogen, and sperm parameters improved in the Daflon-treated groups. Hence, pre-treatment with flavonoid fractions of diosmin and hesperidin mitigated CPF-induced reproductive toxicity.

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  • Flavonoids, constituting the most extensive category of polyphenols, founds in a variety of plants and comprise over 9000 compounds. Diosmetin, O-methylated flavone (3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone) of flavonoid aglycone diosmin have witnessed a significant surge in recent years. Many studies showed that flavonoids induced cytotoxicity in different organ specific cancer types. Thus, current review evaluates the anticancer potential of diosmetin and shed light on its mechanism of action such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway, autophagy and tumour progression and metastasis. It also provides comprehensive analysis of different cancer targets and their role in breast, colon, hepatic, gliomas, leukemia, lung, prostate and skin cancer. Combination studies of diosmetin to improve drug sensitivity and reduce toxicity towards normal cells has been also discussed. Besides, in vitro studies, present review also discuss the anticancer potential of diosmetin on xenograft mice model. Different natural sources of diosmetin, limitations, pharmacokinetic analysis and toxicity study also summarized in current review. The emphasis on enhancing solubility and permeability for clinical utility has been thoroughly highlighted with particular attention given to the utilization of nano formulations to overcome existing barriers. At last, in-depth analysis of current challenges and a forward-looking perspective deliberated to address the existing gaps and position it as a promising lead compound for clinical applications in cancer treatment. This discussion is boosted by diosmetin's potential anticancer properties on different cancers, makes valuable candidates in the ongoing quest for effective therapeutic interventions against cancer.

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  • The Runchang-Tongbian (RCTB) formula is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula consisting of four herbs, namely Cannabis Fructus (Huomaren), Rehmanniae Radix (Dihuang), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (Baizhu), and Aurantii Fructus (Zhiqiao). It is widely used clinically because of its beneficial effect on constipation. However, its strong bitter taste leads to poor patient compliance. The bitter components of TCM compounds are complex and numerous, and inhibiting the bitter taste of TCM has become a major clinical challenge. Here, we use ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify 59 chemical components in the TCM compound RCTB formula. Next, four bitter taste receptors, TAS2R39, TAS2R14, TAS2R7, and TAS2R5, which are tightly bound to the compounds in RCTB, were screened as molecular docking receptors using the BitterX database. The top-three-scoring receptor-small-molecule complexes for each of the four receptors were selected for molecular dynamics simulation. Finally, seven bitter components were identified, namely six flavonoids (rhoifolin, naringin, poncirin, diosmin, didymin, and narirutin) and one phenylpropanoid (purpureaside C). Thus, we proposed a new method for identifying the bitter components in TCM compounds, which provides a theoretical reference for bitter taste inhibition in TCM compounds.

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  • The recent study purposes to evaluate the biological activities of gathered from Jeddah coastal area, Saudi Arabia, with respect to its phytochemical components. Our results indicated that the values ​​of moisture content, ash, total organic matter, total proteins, total lipids and total carbohydrates were 34.25 ± 5.6 %, 40.70 ± 2.3 %, 25.05 ± 1.73 %, 14.39 ± 0.8 %, 4.86 ± 6.9 % and 2.81 ± 1.4 %, respectively. The data also showed that the total phenols and flavonoids were 345.04 ± 1.50 and 320.67 ± 0.92 mg/g in the dried sample, respectively. Furthermore, four compounds were detected by HPLC at very low concentrations (quinic acid, ellagic acid, cinnamic acid, and phenanthrene) and flavonoids data confirmed the presence of apeginin, rudin, diosmin, and quercilin at high concentrations of 141.26, 11.42, 121.75, and 145.28. mg/g, respectively. The crude extract of exhibited cytotoxicity toward hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG-2 cell line) using an MTT assay with concentration range between 2 and 500 µg/mL for 48 h with IC 40.02 ± 3.94 µg/mL. Evidently, the extract had Hepatoprotective activity with IC = 447.31 ± 14.59 μg/mL. The IC activity of a crude methanol extract of was compared with that of an antioxidant drug (Torolox). The value (98.82 ± 1.30 μg/mL) was recorded close to Torolox (62.4 ± 0.70 μg/mL). This extract also possessed moderate antibacterial activity with inhibition zones ranging between 10 mm against to 16 mm against .

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