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  • Diet therapy in disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI) is rapidly advancing, with accumulating evidence to support two innovative therapies-manipulation of dietary fibers and enzyme supplementation-that target specific DGBI pathophysiology and modulate digestion. Dietary fibers escape digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and can influence gut function by impacting digestion, improving laxation, and interacting with the microbiota. A more nuanced understanding of different fiber types and their ability to impact gut function in highly specific ways has shown that fibers can impact distinct gut symptoms and pathophysiology. By considering their functional characteristics of bulking, gel-forming, and fermentability, restriction or supplementation of specific fibers can offer clinical value in DGBI. Similarly to fiber specificity, emerging evidence suggests that supplemental digestive enzymes may be targeted to known food triggers with consideration that enzymes are substrate specific. Limited evidence supports use of lactase to target lactose, and α-galactosidase to target galacto-oligosaccharides. Application of enzymes during manufacturing of food products may prove to be an additional strategy, although evidence is scant. Both innovative therapies may be utilized in isolation or in combination with other diet and nondiet therapies. Implementation can be guided by the principles that fiber modulation can be targeted to specific symptomology or requirement for alterations to gut function, and digestive enzymes can be targeted to known food triggers. This review aims to summarize recent literature of these two innovative concepts and provide practical suggestions for their implementation in clinical practice.

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  • Pulmonary neutrophilia is a hallmark of numerous airway diseases including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Neutrophilic asthma, Acute Lung Injury (ALI), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and COVID-19. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of dietary interventions on lung health in context of pulmonary neutrophilia.

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  • The transgalactosylase activity of β-galactosidases offers a convenient and promising strategy for conversion of lactose into high-value oligosaccharides, such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). In this study, we cloned and biochemically characterized a novel C-terminally truncated β-galactosidase (PaBgal2A-D) from Paenibacillus antarcticus with high transglycosylation activity. PaBgal2A-D is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 2. The optimal pH and temperature of PaBgal2A-D were determined to be pH 6.5 and 50°C, respectively. It was relatively stable within pH 5.0-8.0 and up to 50°C. PaBgal2A-D showed high transglycosylation activity for GOS synthesis, and the maximum yield of 50.8% (wt/wt) was obtained in 2 h. Moreover, PaBgal2A-D could synthesize lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) using lactose and lacto-N-triose II (LNT2), with a conversion rate of 16.4%. This study demonstrated that PaBgal2A-D could be a promising tool to prepare GOS and LNnT.

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  • Immunonutrition, which focuses on specific nutrients in breast milk and post-weaning diets, plays a crucial role in supporting infants' immune system development. This study explored the impact of maternal supplementation with M-16V and a combination of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharide (scGOS) and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (lcFOS) from pregnancy through lactation, extending into the early childhood of the offspring. The synbiotic supplementation's effects were examined at both mucosal and systemic levels. While the supplementation did not influence their overall growth, water intake, or food consumption, a trophic effect was observed in the small intestine, enhancing its weight, length, width, and microscopic structures. A gene expression analysis indicated a reduction in and and an increase in and , suggesting enhanced maturation and barrier function. Intestinal immunoglobulin (Ig) A levels remained unaffected, while cecal IgA levels decreased. The synbiotic supplementation led to an increased abundance of total bacteria and Ig-coated bacteria in the cecum. The abundance of increased in both the intestine and cecum. Short-chain fatty acid production decreased in the intestine but increased in the cecum due to the synbiotic supplementation. Systemically, the Ig profiles remained unaffected. In conclusion, maternal synbiotic supplementation during gestation, lactation, and early life is established as a new strategy to improve the maturation and functionality of the gastrointestinal barrier. Additionally, it participates in the microbiota colonization of the gut, leading to a healthier composition.

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  • Maternal synbiotic supplementation during pregnancy and lactation can significantly influence the immune system. Prebiotics and probiotics have a positive impact on the immune system by preventing or ameliorating among others intestinal disorders. This study focused on the immunomodulatory effects of M-16V and short chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS)/long chain fructo-oligosachairdes (lcFOS), including systemic and mucosal compartments and milk composition.

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  • Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) promote the growth and adhesion of bifidobacteria, thus exerting multiple biological functions on intestinal epithelial cells. Bacterial surface proteins play an important role in bacterial-host intestinal epithelial interactions. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of surface proteins extracted from Bifidobacterium bifidum DNG6 (B. bifidum DNG6) consuming 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) on Caco-2 cells monolayer barrier injury induced by lipopolysaccharide, compared with lactose (Lac) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). Our results indicated that 2'-FL may promote the surface proteins of B. bifidum DNG6 to improve intestinal barrier injury by positively regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway, reducing inflammation(TNF-α reduced to 50.34%, IL-6 reduced to 22.83%, IL-1β reduced to 37.91%, and IL-10 increased to 63.47%)and strengthening tight junction (ZO-1 2.39 times, Claudin-1 2.79 times, and Occludin 4.70 times). The findings of this study indicate that 2'-FL can further regulate intestinal barrier damage by promoting the alteration of B. bifidum DNG6 surface protein. The findings of this research will also provide theoretical support for the development of synbiotic formulations.

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  • Interest is growing in the relationship of the microbiota and intestinal environment with health in companion animals. Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), typical prebiotics, are expected to provide benefits in dogs. Previous studies of GOS in dogs have involved dogs with similar rearing conditions and diets, which may have biased the results. We conducted an open study of 26 healthy dogs kept in households with diverse rearing environments in order to evaluate how the intake of a GOS-containing syrup affects the intestinal microbiota and its metabolites. Each dog was fed 1.2-4.8 g of the GOS-containing syrup (GOS 0.5-2.0 g equivalent) for 8 weeks. Fecal microbiota, fecal concentrations of organic acids and putrefactive products, fecal odor, and serum uremic toxin concentrations were evaluated before intake (0 weeks), during the 8-week intake period (4 and 8 weeks), and 4 weeks after intake (12 weeks). The activity of -benzoyl-DL-arginine peptidase in dental plaque, which may be associated with periodontal disease, was evaluated at 0 and 8 weeks. Continuous intake of GOS resulted in changes in fecal microbiota, with a particularly marked increase in the abundance of , which produces propionic acid. Other findings included a significant increase in the fecal acetic, propionic, and -butyric acid concentrations. Additionally, significant decreases in fecal odor, fecal phenol concentration, and serum indoxyl sulfate concentration. Intake of GOS was also associated with a significant decrease in -benzoyl-DL-arginine peptidase activity in dental plaques. These results suggest that continuous intake of GOS may contribute to canine health.

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  • Cachexia, a syndrome with high prevalence in non-small cell lung cancer patients, impairs quality of life and reduces tolerance and responsiveness to cancer therapy resulting in decreased survival. Optimal nutritional care is pivotal in the treatment of cachexia and a recommended cornerstone of multimodal therapy. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of an intervention diet consisting of a specific combination of high protein, leucine, fish oil, vitamin D, galacto-oligosaccharides, and fructo-oligosaccharides on the development and progression of cachexia in an orthotopic lung cancer mouse model.

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  • In this study, the utilization mechanism of oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium was investigated through the transcriptome sequencing and non-targeted metabolomics technology of Bifidobacterium animalis cultured with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). The results showed that FOS affected the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate binding transporters (ABC transporters) by increasing the expression levels of msmE, msmG, and gluA. Similarly, GOS improved aminoacyl-tRNA synthases by upregulating the expression of tRNA-Ala, tRNA-Pro, and tRNA-Met. Bifidobacterium animalis cultured with FOS and GOS produced different metabolites, such as histamine, tartaric acid, and norepinephrine, with the functions of inhibiting inflammation, alleviating depression and diseases related to brain and nervous system and maintaining body health. Furthermore, the transcriptome and metabolome analysis results revealed that FOS and GOS promoted the growth and metabolism of Bifidobacterium animalis by regulating the related pathways of carbohydrate, energy, and amino acid metabolism. Overall, the experimental results provided significant insights into the prebiotic effects of FOS and GOS.

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  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and hyocholic acids (HCA) during late gestation and lactation on reproductive performance, colostrum quality, antioxidant capacity and gut microbiota in multiparous sows.

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