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  • This study aimed to investigate the impact of different strains of on malolactic fermentation (MLF), antioxidant activity, and aroma of ciders. A commercial strain of and six indigenous strains were co-inoculated into apple juice to induce simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and MLF. The findings indicated that despite belonging to the same species, the different L. strains significantly differed ( < 0.05) in terms of antioxidant activity and aroma compounds in the ciders. MLF induced by L. resulted in the substantial consumption of malic acid and increased levels of lactic acid in the ciders, with strain-specific effects observed, particularly with L. SCFF284. In addition, ciders produced from mixed fermentations exhibited higher levels of antioxidant activity than those from pure fermentation ( < 0.05), especially for LAM284. Furthermore, ciders produced from mixed fermentations exhibited higher levels of aroma compounds, such as ethyl acetate and isoamyl alcohol, and also received higher sensory scores compared to ciders produced through pure fermentation ( < 0.05). These results highlight the effectiveness of MLF induced by L. in enhancing the antioxidant activity and aroma profile of ciders.

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  • This study investigates how extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) synthesized by dark septate endophytic (DSE) improve alfalfa's drought resistance. Drought stress was simulated in hydroponic culture, and roots were treated with different EPS concentrations to determine their effects on drought tolerance and applicable concentrations. Hydroponic solutions with 0.25 and 0.50% EPS concentrations alleviated leaf wilting and increased total plant fresh weight by 35.8 and 57.7%, respectively. SEM shows that EPS attached to the roots and may have served to protect the root system. EPS treatment significantly depressed the MDA contents of the roots, stems, and leaves. Roots responded to drought stress by increasing soluble sugar contents and antioxidant enzyme activities, while mitigating stem and leaf stress by synthesizing lipid compounds, amino acids, and organic acid metabolites. Five metabolites in the stem have been reported to be associated with plant stress tolerance and growth, namely 3--methyl 5--(2-methyl propyl) (4S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-3,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate, malic acid, PA (20:1(11Z)/15:0), -methyl-4,6,7-trihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, and 2-(-glutathionyl) acetyl glutathione. In summary, EPS treatment induced oxidative stress and altered plant metabolism, and this in turn increased plant antioxidant capacity. The results provide a theoretical basis for the application of EPS in commercial products that increase plant resistance and ecological restoration.

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  • Aging is a physiological phenomenon in the process of life, and skin aging has a significant impact on human appearance. Therefore, the search for methods to delay skin aging is of great significance for improving the quality of human life.

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  • Effect of Chinese bayberry residue on quality of Chinese quinoa ( Willd.) Rice wine.

    Chinese bayberry residue (CBR) is a by-product of processing, which can be used as an auxiliary material during the processing of quinoa rice wine. In this study, the effects of CBR on the chemical profile, bioactive function, taste traits, and flavor of Chinese quinoa rice wine (CQRW) were investigated. The results showed that adding CBR increased the total phenolics, the total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity. Malic acid content was the highest in Chinese rice wine (CRW), while the total content of components detected in HPLC-MS/MS was the highest in 10%CBR + CQRW. The CQRW exhibited the highest amino acid content, followed by 20%CBR + CQRW. -tongue analysis results showed that 10%CBR + CQRW, 20%CBR + CQRW, and CQRW had the closest taste traits. Moreover, GC-MS analysis identified 72 aroma compounds in 10%CBR + CQRW sample, more than other samples. In summary, adding 10% CBR significantly improved the quality of CQRW.

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  • In recent studies we have reported on the near-UV light-induced degradation of iron complexes of various pharmaceutical excipients, such as Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-amino acid complexes. Mechanistic studies revealed a common photo-degradation pattern, i.e. the formation of carbon dioxide radical anion, a potent reducing agent, via an alkoxyl/amino radical intermediate generated by light-induced ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) involving α-hydroxycarboxylates or amino acids. Herein, we confirm the proposed general photo-degradation pathways through the study of the iron complexes of other α-hydroxycarboxylates that may be present in protein formulations, such as lactate and glycolate. The results indicate that lactate generates even higher yields of CO as compared to citrate, suggesting a significant potential of lactate for the promotion of photo-degradation in pharmaceutical formulations.

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  • The effects of normal (NA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage and postharvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) before CA storage for 5 months on the volatilome, biochemical composition and quality of 'Golden Delicious' (GD) and 'Red Delicious' (RD) apples were studied. Apples stored under NA and CA maintained and 1-MCP treatment increased firmness in both cultivars. NA storage resulted in a decrease of glucose, sucrose and fructose levels in both cultivars. When compared to CA storage, 1-MCP treatment caused a more significant decrease in sucrose levels and an increase in glucose levels. Additionally, 1-MCP-treated apples exhibited a significant decrease in malic acid content for both cultivars. All storage conditions led to significant changes in the abundance and composition of the volatilome in both cultivars. GD and RD apples responded differently to 1-MCP treatment compared to CA storage; higher abundance of hexanoate esters and (,)-α-farnesene was observed in RD apples treated with 1-MCP. While 1-MCP was effective in reducing (,)-α-farnesene abundance in GD apples, its impact on RD apples was more limited. However, for both cultivars, all storage conditions resulted in lower levels of 2-methylbutyl acetate, butyl acetate and hexyl acetate. The effectiveness of 1-MCP is cultivar dependent, with GD showing better results than RD.

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  • The Amazon region is home to many plant species, many of which have not been studied. The objective was to evaluate the physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of (tintiuk), (apai), (acai), and (brown moriche). Physicochemical analyses were carried out on fresh fruit from local markets. Bioactive compounds (carotenoids, phenolics, vitamin C, and organic acids) were quantified in the freeze-dried pulp by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC), and antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. The results showed high soluble solids (10.7 °Brix) and ascorbic acid (67.3 mg/100 g DW) in tintiuk; β-carotene (63.4 mg/100 g DW) and malic acid (19.6 g/100 g DW) in brown moriche; quercetin (944.2 mg/100 g DW) and antioxidant activity by ABTS (6.7 mmol ET/100 g DW) in apai; and citric acid (2.1 g/100 g DW) in acai. These results indicate interesting bioactive properties that could increase the consumption of these fruits nationally and internationally, benefiting local farmers and stimulating the development of new products in functional food, medicine, and cosmetics.

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  • During malolactic fermentation (MLF) of vinification, the harsh L-malic acid undergoes transformation into the milder L-lactic acid, and via decarboxylation reactions it is catalyzed by malolactic enzymes in LAB. The use of bacterial malolactic starter cultures, which usually present challenges in the industry as the suboptimal conditions after alcoholic fermentation (AF), including nutrient limitations, low temperatures, acidic pH levels, elevated alcohol, and sulfur dioxide concentrations after AF, lead to "stuck" or "sluggish" MLF and spoilage of wines. has interesting oenological properties and provides a stronger aromatic intensity than in AF. In the study, the biological pathways of deacidification were constructed in , which made the carry out the AF and MLF simultaneously, as different genes encoding malolactic enzyme ( or ), malic enzyme (), and malate permease ( or ) from , , , and were heterologously expressed. For further inquiry, the effect of L-malic acid metabolism on the flavor balance in wine, the related flavor substances, higher alcohols, and esters production, were detected. Of all the recombinants, the strains WYm1S with coexpression of malate permease gene from and malolactic enzyme gene from and WYm1m2 with coexpression of gene and malate permease gene from could reduce the L-malic acid contents to about 1 g/L, and in which the mutant WYm1S exhibited the best effect on the flavor quality improvement.

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  • Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) of choline chloride (ChCl) and fructose, glucose, citric and malic acid with different water concentration were prepared and characterized. The pH ranged from 2.34 to 7.38. An increase in the intensity at 3300 cm (FT-IR), by the interaction between the receptor and the hydrogen donor, occurred. The water content increased the intensity in the OH region without changing the vibrational mode. The same behavior occurred in Raman spectra. NADES without water showed a high density (1.234 to 1.375 g/mL) and viscosity (0.09991 to 0.46921 Pa·s). NADESs with 20% and 40% water were selected for extracting phenolic compounds from araza (), using an ultrasonic system of bath, tip, and ethanol. Araza ethanol extract had a TPC (total phenolic compounds) of 325.19 mg GAE/g, and DPPH and ABTS of 12.00 and 291.31 µmolL Trolox g. ChCl:citric acid (1:1) containing 40% water was the most efficient NADES in the tip ultrasound extraction: a TPC of 273.40 mg GAE/g; DPPH and ABTS of 31.55 and 204.9 µmolL Trolox g; and an extraction yield of 84% related to ethanol. NADESs as solvents can be used directly by the food industry as a final product or ingredient, without purification, and proved to be versatile, with different properties.

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  • Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are next-generation probiotics, which has been reported to protect disease and effectively utilize various carbohydrates (starch and pectin) as nutrients for growth. Atemoya exhibiting fruity flavor, which is suitable for enhancing aroma and attenuating unpleasant taste caused by the koji metabolites. Results indicated that malic acid was increased (from 42.4 to 70.1 mg/100 g) in fermented Atemoya-Amazake. In addition, fermented Atemoya-Amazake elevated growthes in A. muciniphila and F. prausnitzii. Similarly, the populations of Parabacteroides (5.7 fold) and Akkermansia (1.66 fold) were elevated by fermented Atemoya-Amazake treatment in an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal system compared to the control group. Results revealed that fermented Atemoya-Amazake modulated the intestinal microbiota through increasing the production of short-chain fatty acids (exhibiting anti-pathogenic activity) for 2.1, 2.5, 2.6, and 2.1 folds in acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, and butyric acid, respectively; suggesting this fermented Atemoya-Amazake could be applied in intestinal protection.

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