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  • Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a very rare and a slowly conspicuous progressing chronic lung disease, which usually involves the upper lobes of the lung. This unusual disease, first recognized as a rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonia in 2013, is characterized by dense fibrosis of the visceral pleura and the subjacent lung parenchyma accompanied by elastosis predominating in the subpleural alveolar walls. In the interest of improving our understanding of this uncommon disease, we report a case of IPPFE established by pathology results. A 73-year-old male patient, smoker, with a medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, presented since January 2022 with a gradual worsening of dyspnea on exertion and productive cough with weight loss. The chest X-ray detected a thoracic distention. The chest high resolution computed tomography revealed biapical subpleural parenchymatous condensations with tractive bronchiectasis and pleural retraction in the right upper lobe and diffuse bilateral cento-lobular emphysema. A scan-guided trans-parietal lung biopsy showed lung parenchyma tattooed with anthracosic deposits, largely remodeled by fibrous tissue, intermingled with numerous wavy and refractive dyselastotic structures in polarized light. The orcein staining confirmed the presence of excess elastosic fibers within these lesions. All etiological investigations were negative. His lung function studies revealed a reversible obstructive ventilatory disorder. Following a multidisciplinary discussion, the diagnosis of IPPFE was confirmed on the basis of the distribution in the upper lungs on chest computed tomography combined with pathology pattern. This case emphasizes the atypical misleading radiological presentation of IPPFE and the key role of pathological results in establishing the diagnosis. Hence, further studies are needed to improve our understanding of this uncommon disease and to establish clear-cut guidelines for IPPFE diagnosis and management.

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  • The varicose vein affects more than 30% of the general population. Significantly increased rates were noticed in women and older population. From the histopathological point of view, venous arterialization, smooth muscle cell hypertrophy, and hyperplasia are the main changes noticed in varicose vein disease. Some of the main therapeutic methods used in the management of varicose disease are injection sclerotherapy, conservative, surgical, saphenous vein inversion and removal, high saphenous ligation, ambulatory phlebectomy, transilluminated powered phlebectomy, endovascular management, cryostripping.

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  • Skin represents the main barrier against the external environment, but also plays a role in human relations, as one of the prime determinants of beauty, resulting in a high consumer demand for skincare-related pharmaceutical products. Given the importance of skin aging in both medical and social spheres, the present research aims to characterize microscopic changes in human skin composition due to intrinsic aging (as opposed to aging influenced by external factors) via histological analysis of a photoprotected body region. Samples from 25 autopsies were taken from the periumbilical area and classified into four age groups: group 1 (0-12 years), group 2 (13-25 years), group 3 (26-54 years), and group 4 (≥ 55 years). Different traditional histological (hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, orcein, toluidine, Alcian blue, and Feulgen reaction) and immunohistochemical (CK20, CD1a, Ki67, and CD31) stains were performed. A total of 1879 images photographed with a Leica DM3000 optical microscope were morphometrically analyzed using Image ProPlus 7.0 for further statistical analysis with GraphPad 9.0. Our results showed a reduction in epidermis thickness, interdigitation and mitotic indexes, while melanocyte count was raised. Papillary but not reticular dermis showed increased thickness with aging. Specifically, in the papillary layer mast cells and glycosaminoglycans were expanded, whereas the reticular dermis displayed a diminution in glycosaminoglycans and elastic fibers. Moreover, total cellularity and vascularization of both dermises were diminished with aging. This morphometric analysis of photoprotected areas reveals that intrinsic aging significantly influences human skin composition. This study paves the way for further research into the molecular basis underpinning these alterations, and into potential antiaging strategies.

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  • Macroalgae provide key contributions to aquatic ecosystems, including their role as primary producers and the provision of biotopes for marine organisms, fish spawning, and fish nurseries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a micronucleus test and a comet assay in Ceramium tenuicorne, a red macroalga. This alga is widely distributed in marine ecosystems and brackish waters, and is therefore a potential bioindicator of the effects of anthropogenic pollution in these ecosystems. Unfortunately, the two genotoxicity tests evaluated were not suitable for this alga because the nuclei are generally very small (between 2 and 10 µm), are variable in size, and there may be several nuclei in each cell (between 1 and 5 in our observations). However, the present study allowed us to define conditions for observing these algal cells and optimizing the choice of DNA dye (orcein), cell fixation solution (Carnoy's solution), and hydrolysis step (HCl, 1200 mmol/L solution for 1 min). This research allowed us to propose two genotoxicity and cytotoxicity endpoints for assessing chemical effects on the algal cells: counting of nuclei in cortical cell areas, and the frequency of axial cells in mitosis. These two criteria were measured after exposing C. tenuicorne to two reference substances: cadmium chloride and maleic hydrazide, and we highlight the effects from 1 × 10 M of CdCl and 5 × 10 M of maleic hydrazide.

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  • Asthma is a condition of airflow limitation, common throughout the world, with high mortality rates, especially as it still faces some obstacles in its management. As it constitutes a public health challenge, this study aimed to investigate the effect of copaiba oil (e.g., ), as a treatment resource, at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg on certain mediators of acute lung inflammation (IL-33, GATA3, FOXP3, STAT3, and TBET) and early mechanisms of lung remodeling (degradation of elastic fiber tissues, collagen deposition, and goblet cell hyperplasia). Using an ovalbumin-induced acute allergic asthma model in BALB/c mice, we analyzed the inflammatory mediators through immunohistochemistry and the mechanisms of lung remodeling through histopathology, employing orcein, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff staining. Copaiba oil treatment (CO) reduced IL-33 and increased FOXP3 by stimulating the FOXP3/GATA3 and FOXP3/STAT3 pathways. Additionally, it upregulated TBET, suggesting an additional role in controlling GATA3 activity. In the respiratory epithelium, CO decreased the fragmentation of elastic fibers while increasing the deposition of collagen fibers, favoring epithelial restructuring. Simultaneously, CO reduced goblet cell hyperplasia. Although additional research is warranted, the demonstrated anti-inflammatory and re-epithelializing action makes CO a viable option in exploring new treatments for acute allergic asthma.

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  • Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) plays critical roles in oocyte maturation and embryonic development; however, the specific pathway by which FGF10 promotes in vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes remains elusive. The present study was aimed at investigating the mechanism underlying effects of the FGF10-mediated extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) pathway on oocyte maturation and embryonic development in vitro. MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) inhibitor U0126, alone or in combination with FGF10, was added to the maturation culture medium during maturation of the cumulus oocyte complex. Morphological observations, orcein staining, apoptosis detection, and quantitative real-time PCR were performed to evaluate oocyte maturation, embryonic development, and gene expression. U0126 affected oocyte maturation and embryonic development in vitro by substantially reducing the nuclear maturation of oocytes and expansion of the cumulus while increasing the apoptosis of cumulus cells. However, it did not have a considerable effect on glucose metabolism. These findings suggest that blocking the MEK/ERK pathway is detrimental to the maturation and embryonic development potential of buffalo oocytes. Overall, FGF10 may regulate the nuclear maturation of oocytes and cumulus cell expansion and apoptosis but not glucose metabolism through the MEK/ERK pathway. Our findings indicate that FGF10 regulates resumption of meiosis and expansion and survival of cumulus cells via MEK/ERK signaling during in vitro maturation of buffalo cumulus oocyte complexes. Elucidation of the mechanism of action of FGF10 and insights into oocyte maturation should advance buffalo breeding. Further studies should examine whether enhancement of MEK/ERK signaling improves embryonic development in buffalo.

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  • The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a relationship between age or sex and the thickness of the radial artery wall.

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  • Men's infertility and lack of production of healthy and active sperm are concerns of recent years in most countries. Studies on the preparation of extracellular matrix (ECM) from decellularization of testis tissue and spermatogenesis could provide proper results to solve some of the men's infertility problems. This study aims to decellularize calf testis by different methods to reach a suitable scaffold and introduce it in spermatogenesis studies.

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  • The widespread applications of ZnO NPs in the different areas of science, technology, medicine, agriculture, and commercial products have led to increased chances of their release into the environment. This created a growing public concern about the toxicological and environmental effects of the nanoparticles. The impact of these NPs on the genetic materials of living organisms is documented in some cultured cells and plants, but there are only a few studies regarding this aspect in animals. In view of this, the present work regarding the assessment of the genotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles using the mosquito has been taken up. Statistically significant chromosomal aberrations over the control are recorded after the exposure of the fourth instar larvae to a dose of less than LD for 24 h. In order to select this dose, LD of ZnO NPs for the mosquito is determined by Probit analysis. Lacto-aceto-orcein stained chromosomal preparations are made from gonads of adult treated and control mosquitoes. Both structural aberrations, such as chromosomal breaks, fragments, translocations, and terminal fusions, resulting in the formation of rings and clumped chromosomes, and numerical ones, including hypo- and hyper-aneuploidy at metaphases, bridges, and laggards at the anaphase stage are observed. The percentage frequency of abnormalities in the shape of sperm heads is also found to be statistically significant over the controls. Besides this, zinc oxide nanoparticles are also found to affect the reproductive potential and embryo development as egg rafts obtained from the genetic crosses of ZnO nanoparticle-treated virgin females and normal males are small in size with a far smaller number of eggs per raft. The percentage frequencies of dominant lethal mutations indicated by the frequency of unhatched eggs are also statistically significant ( < 0.05) over the control. The induction of abnormalities in all of the three short-term assays studied during the present piece of work indicates the genotoxic potential of ZnO NPs, which cannot be labeled absolutely safe, and this study pinpoints the need to develop strategies for the protection of the environment and living organisms thriving in it.

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  • Invisible dermatosis is a concept that can be applied either to clinical or histopathological findings. We will focus on the dermatopathological aspect of this invisible dermatosis that can be seen as dermatosis with subtle histopathological findings that are mandatory to known to stablish the diagnosis. With a proper approach facing in depth the different skin layers from stratum corneum to subcutaneous tissue combined with some especial stains, special investigations and mostly a proper clinicopathological correlation, the problem of missing out a diagnosis can be decreased. We will review the general aspects for diagnosis and the peculiar findings of an in-depth review of them because it is important to note that minor changes on a skin biopsy do not mean it is disease free. We will review classic clues, we will add some new useful ones, and we will also provide a guide on the special stains helpful, such as periodic acid-Schiff when facing fungi, orcein-Giemsa and van Gieson when altered elastic fibers are suspected, or Pearl and Masson Fontana when an altered skin pigmentation is suspected.

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