Exploring the World of Natural Sciences

Your Source for Nature-based Education and Exploration

A Hub for Exploring the Wonders of Nature

Natural Science Hub Search function

Type your keywords and we will find the results


  • leaves (MOL) are native to India and have high biological activities. To better understand the basic pharmacodynamic materials, the chemical components in MOL and their pharmacokinetic properties were studied and quantitated using UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS. Forty-two compounds were identified, including phenolic acids and their derivatives, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, nucleosides, alkaloids, and other compounds. Two phenolic acids and six flavonoids were studied for their pharmacokinetic properties using UHPLC-MS/MS. Precision, accuracy, stability, matrix effects, and extraction recovery were verified. All substances that were measured reached their maximum within 0.5 h. Vicenin-2 had a high peak concentration and bioavailability. Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside had a longer biological half-life than other components. The results from this study provide the data basis for subsequent comprehensive qualitative evaluation and potential MOL use in clinical applications.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Thevetia peruviana (T. peruviana; Family: Apocynaceae), commonly known as Lucky Nut, is a traditionally and medicinally important plant, and the barks of the plant are traditionally used as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antibacterial remedies. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate bioactive phytochemicals and -vitro biological activities from the bark of T. peruviana using methanolic (TPM) and dichloromethane (TPD) extracts. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of 54 and 39 bioactive compounds in TPM and TPD, respectively. The TPM extract has a higher level of total polyphenolic contents (TPC: 70.89 ± 1.08 and 51.07 ± 0.78 mg GAE/g extracts, while TFC: 56.89 ± 1.16 and 44.12 ± 1.76 Qu.E/g extracts for TPM and TPD, respectively). Herein, the results of antioxidant activities were also found in correlation with the total polyphenolic contents i.e., depicting the higher antioxidant potential of TPM compared to TPD. The significant inhibitory activities of extracts were observed against tyrosinase (TPM; 59.43 ± 2.87 %, TPD; 53.43 ± 2.65 %), lipoxygenase (TPM; 77.1 ± 1.2 %, TPD; 59.3 ± 0.1 %), and α-glucosidase (TPM; 71.32 ± 2.44 %, TPD; 67.86 ± 3.011 %). Furthermore, in comparison to co-amoxiclave, the antibacterial property against five bacterial strains was significant assayed. The compounds obtained through GC-MS analysis were subjected to -silico molecular docking studies, and the phyto-constituents with maximum binding scores were then subjected to ADME analysis. The results of -silico studies revealed that the binding affinity of several phyto-constituents was even greater than that of the standard inhibitory ligands. ADME analysis showed bioavailability radars of phyto-constituents having maximum docking scores in molecular docking. The results of this study indicated that T. peruviana has bioactive phytochemicals and therapeutic potential and may provide a basis for treating metabolic disorders (inflammatory diseases like rheumatism and diabetes), bacterial infections, and skin-related problems.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Constructed wetlands (CWs) are systems designed to maximize pollutants removal by various mechanisms, most of which are associated with the presence of plants. However, the substances secreted by plants to defend themselves against external aggressions during their growth are very little studied in these systems. This study aimed to characterize the chemical constituents of extracts used in an experimental mesocosm filled with shale and laterite treating domestic wastewater. Above-ground biomass, strain diameter and secondary metabolites of plants grown on the different substrates (shale and laterite) were monitored, as were those grown on the experimental site (control). In addition, the removal performance of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjedahl nitrogen (TKN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) was determined at the outlet of CWs. Plant biomass measured on the shale bed (13.7 ± 0.5 kg m) was higher than on the laterite bed (12.5 ± 0.1 kg m), both lower than the biomass obtained in the natural environment (14.9 ± 0.6 kg m). Performances ranged from 83 ± 5.4 to 76.9 ± 7 % (COD), 84.7 ± 6.8 to 78 ± 8.1 % (BOD), 72.2 ± 10.7 to 55.5 ± 16.4 % (NTK) and 72.4 ± 4.9 to 58.4 ± 3.4 % (TP), with higher efficiencies in the shale-filled bed. Plant extracts from the experimental site were richer in secondary metabolites (total polyphenol [73.5 mgEAG/gMS], total flavonoids [18.1 mgEQ/gMS] and condensed tannin [13.3 mgEC/gMS]) than those from plants grown in CWs. However, plants in the shale-filled bed secreted more total polyphenol (57.7 mgEAG/gMS), total flavonoids (12.1 mgEQ/gMS) and condensed tannin (12 mgEC/gMS) than those in the laterite-filled bed. In short, wastewater and filtration materials have an influence on the secretion of secondary plant metabolites. However, of the two materials, shale seems to be better suited to CWs, as it promotes an environment close to the natural environment.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Molybdenum (Mo) is a crucial microelement for both, humans and plants. The use of agronomic biofortification techniques can be an alternative method to enhance Mo content in vegetables. Concomitantly, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) application is a valuable strategy to enhance plant performances and overcome plant abiotic distresses such as microelement overdose. The aim of this research was to estimate the direct and/or indirect effects of Mo supply at four doses [0.0, 0.5 (standard dose), 2.0 or 4.0 μmol L], alone or combined with AMF inoculation, on plant performances. In particular, plant height and first flower truss emission, productive features (total yield, marketable yield and average marketable fruit weight) and fruit qualitative characteristics (fruit dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, lycopene, polyphenol, nitrogen, copper, iron and molybdenum) of an established cherry tomato genotype cultivated in soilless conditions were investigated. Moreover, proline and malondialdehyde concentrations, as well as Mo hazard quotient (HQ) in response to experimental treatments were determined. A split-plot randomized experimental block design with Mo dosages as plots and +AMF or -AMF as sub-plots was adopted. Data revealed that AMF inoculation enhanced marketable yield (+50.0 %), as well as some qualitative traits, such as fruit soluble solids content (SSC) (+9.9 %), ascorbic acid (+7.3 %), polyphenols (+2.3 %), and lycopene (+2.5 %). Molybdenum application significantly increased SSC, polyphenols, fruit Mo concentration (+29.0 % and +100.0 % in plants biofortified with 2.0 and 4.0 μmol Mo L compared to those fertigated with the standard dose, respectively) and proline, whereas it decreased N (-25.0 % and -41.6 % in plants biofortified with 2.0 and 4.0 μmol Mo L compared to those fertigated with the standard dose, respectively). Interestingly, the application of AMF mitigated the detrimental effect of high Mo dosages (2.0 or 4.0 μmol L). A pronounced advance in terms of plant height 45 DAT, fruit lycopene concentration and fruit Fe, Cu and Mo concentrations was observed when AMF treatment and Mo dosages (2.0 or 4.0 μmol Mo L) were combined. Plants inoculated or not with AMF showed an improvement in the hazard quotient (HQ) in reaction to Mo application. However, the HQ - for a consumption of 200 g day of biofortified cherry tomato - remained within the safety level for human consumption. This study suggests that Mo-implementation (at 2.0 or 4.0 μmol L) combined with AMF inoculation could represent a viable cultivation protocol to enhance yield, produce premium quality tomato fruits and, concomitantly, improve Mo dose in human diet. In the light of our findings, further studies on the interaction between AMF and microelements in other vegetable crops are recommended.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Currently, there is evidence to suggest the benefits of drinking fermented tea for people with osteoporosis, and based on this, many studies have been conducted on the dosage, exact ingredients, mechanisms, and industrial applications of fermented tea for protecting against osteoporosis. A summary and analysis of studies on the regulation of bone mass by oolong tea, black tea, and their active ingredients (including 39 known catechin compounds) was conducted. It was found that the regulation of bone mass by fermented tea is backed by evidence from epidemiology, animal experiments, and cell experiments. The main active components of fermented tea are tea polyphenols, tea pigments, and trace amino acids. The specific mechanisms involved include regulating bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis, inhibiting osteoclast activity, promoting calcium and phosphorus absorption, reducing inflammation levels, regulating gut microbiota, regulating endocrine function, and inhibiting oxidative stress. In terms of its application, extraction, precipitation, biosynthesis and membrane separation method are mainly used to separate the active ingredients of anti osteoporosis from fermented tea. In conclusion, fermented tea has sufficient theoretical and practical support for regulating bone mass and preventing osteoporosis, and is suitable for development as a health supplement. At the same time, a large amount of epidemiological evidence is needed to prove the specific dosage of tea consumption.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Herbivorous insects depend on the host plant to optimize their overall reproductive success, and balanced fertilization may alter the plant's quality against herbivory. Life history traits of the Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) were determined under laboratory conditions using either unfertilized and fertilized plants of bean [Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae)], chrysanthemum [Chrysanthemum × morifolium (Asteraceae)], potato [Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae)], bell pepper [Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae)], and tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Solanaceae)]. Results indicated that L. trifolii completed development on all studied unfertilized and fertilized plants. Nevertheless, a higher performance of the leaf miner was observed on bean and bell pepper plants compared to the other plants. Furthermore, there was an interaction of the host plant and fertilization with Calcium Aria or Sitam negatively affecting the fitness-related traits of the leaf miner. Application of these fertilizers resulted in delayed immature development of L. trifolii, decreased survival rate, and reduced adult longevity and fecundity. The activity of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzymes, as well as phenolic, flavonoid, and lignin content were higher in Calcium Aria + Sitam fertilized plants, intermediate in Calcium Aria and Sitam treated plants, and the lower in unfertilized plants. The development and survival of L. trifolii on different host plants, considering fertilization options, become important for deploying cultural control practices against this important pest species.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are emerging, environment-friendly solvents that have garnered attention for their application in extracting phenolic compounds. This study investigated the effects of four synthetic NADES on polyphenols extracted from date seeds (DS) using choline chloride (ChCl) as a hydrogen-bond acceptor and lactic acid (La), citric acid (Citri), glycerol (Gly), and fructose (Fruc) as hydrogen-bond donors, in comparison with DS extracts extracted by conventional solvents (water, 70% methanol, and 70% ethanol). The antioxidant activity (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC) and 6 phenolic compounds were determined using HPLC. The results showed that the ChCl-La and ChCl-Citri systems exhibited a high extraction efficiency regarding TPC, and DPPH in the DS extracts extracted by NADES compare to those DS extracts extracted with conventional solvents (p ˂ 0.001). HPLC results demonstrated that DS extracted by ChCl-La contained all measured phenolic compounds. Also gallic acid and catechin were the major compounds identified in the DS extracts. In addition DS extracted by ChCl-Citri and ChCl-Gly had the highest concentration of catechin. In conclusion, combining NADES is a promising and environment-friendly alternative to the conventional solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from DS.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Aflatoxins (AFs) are hazardous carcinogens and mutagens produced by some molds, particularly Aspergillus spp. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria, extract and characterize their bioactive metabolites, and evaluate their antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic, and cytotoxic efficacy against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2). Among the 36 bacterial strains isolated, ten bacterial isolates showed high antifungal activity, and thus were identified using biochemical parameters and MALDI-TOF MS. Bioactive metabolites were extracted from two bacterial isolates, and studied for their antifungal activity. The bioactive metabolites (No. 4, and 5) extracted from Bacillus cereus DSM 31T DSM, exhibited strong antifungal capabilities, and generated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polyphenols. The major VOCs were butanoic acid, 2-methyl, and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z) in extracts No. 4, and 5 respectively. Cinnamic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were the most abundant phenolic acids in extracts No. 4, and 5 respectively. These bioactive metabolites had antifungal efficiency against A. flavus and caused morphological alterations in fungal conidiophores and conidiospores. Data also indicated that both extracts No. 4, and 5 reduced AFB production by 99.98%. On assessing the toxicity of bioactive metabolites on A. salina the IC recorded 275 and 300 µg/mL, for extracts No. 4, and 5 respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of these extracts on HepG2 revealed that the IC of extract No. 5 recorded 79.4 µg/mL, whereas No. 4 showed no cytotoxic activity. It could be concluded that bioactive metabolites derived from Bacillus species showed antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic activities, indicating their potential use in food safety.

    Read More on PubMed
  • The effectiveness of tumor treatment using reactive oxygen species as the primary therapeutic medium is hindered by limitations of tumor microenvironment (TME), such as intrinsic hypoxia in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and overproduction of reducing glutathione (GSH) in chemodynamic therapy (CDT). Herein, we fabricate metal-polyphenol self-assembled nanodots (Fe@BDP NDs) guided by second near-infrared (NIR-II) fluorescence imaging. The Fe@BDP NDs are designed for synergistic combination of type-I PDT and CDT-amplified ferroptosis. In a mildly acidic TME, Fe@BDP NDs demonstrate great Fenton activity, leading to the generation of highly toxic hydroxyl radicals from overproduced hydrogen peroxide in tumor cells. Furthermore, Fe@BDP NDs show favorable efficacy in type-I PDT, even in tolerating tumor hypoxia, generating active superoxide anion upon exposure to 808 nm laser irradiation. The significant efficiency in reactive oxygen species (ROS) products results in the oxidation of sensitive polyunsaturated fatty acids, accelerating lethal lipid peroxidation (LPO) bioprocess. Additionally, Fe@BDP NDs illustrate an outstanding capability for GSH depletion, causing the inactivation of glutathione peroxidase 4 and further promoting lethal LPO. The synergistic type-I photodynamic and chemodynamic cytotoxicity effectively trigger irreversible ferroptosis by disrupting the intracellular redox homeostasis. Moreover, Fe@BDP NDs demonstrate charming NIR-II fluorescence imaging capability and effectively accumulated at the tumor site, visualizing the distribution of Fe@BDP NDs and the treatment process. The chemo/photo-dynamic-amplified ferroptotic efficacy of Fe@BDP NDs was evidenced both in vitro and in vivo. This study presents a compelling approach to intensify ferroptosis via visualized CDT and PDT. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we detailed the fabrication of metal-polyphenol self-assembled nanodots (Fe@BDP NDs) guided by second near-infrared (NIR-II) fluorescence imaging, aiming to intensify ferroptosis via the synergistic combination of type-I PDT and CDT. In a mildly acidic TME, Fe@BDP NDs exhibited significant Fenton activity, resulting in the generation of highly toxic •OH from overproduced HO in tumor cells. Fe@BDP NDs possessed a remarkable capability for GSH depletion, resulting in the inactivation of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and further accelerating lethal LPO. This study presented a compelling approach to intensify ferroptosis via visualized CDT and PDT.

    Read More on PubMed
  • The long-term stability in real and accelerated time for galenic oils based on full-spectrum cannabis has been studied, using sesame oil as a dilutant. Sesame oil is one of the most used vehicles in the cannabis pharmaceutical industry due to the costs and increased oral bioavailability of cannabinoids. The real-time assays conducted at 25 °C over twelve months demonstrated high stability and showed no significant changes in the composition of cannabinoids, total polyphenols, flavonoids, or antioxidant capacity. In these studies, it was observed that there was no development of microorganisms compromising the stability of the oils over a year. The three oil varieties exhibited a high bactericidal capacity against E. coli, S. aureus, and P. larvae.

    Read More on PubMed

Proudly Supported By:

Grateful for our sponsors' invaluable support!