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  • The epigenetic regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a pivotal redox transcription factor, plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Recent research has underscored the significance of epigenetic modifications of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). This study investigates the epigenetic reversal of Nrf2 by pterostilbene (PTS) in human endothelial cells in a hyperglycemic microenvironment (HGM). The activation potential of PTS on Nrf2 was evaluated through ARE-Luciferase reporter assays and nuclear translocation studies. Following 72 h of exposure to an HGM, mRNA expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and its downstream targets NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), heme-oxygenase 1(HO-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) exhibited a decrease, which was mitigated in PTS-pretreated endothelial cells. Epigenetic markers, including histone deacetylases (HDACs class I-IV) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs 1/3A and 3B), were found to be downregulated under diabetic conditions. Specifically, Nrf2-associated HDACs, including HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC4, were upregulated in HGM-induced endothelial cells. This upregulation was reversed in PTS-pretreated cells, except for HDAC2, which exhibited elevated expression in endothelial cells treated with PTS in a hyperglycemic microenvironment. Additionally, PTS was observed to reverse the activity of the methyltransferase enzyme DNMT. Furthermore, CpG islands in the Nrf2 promoter were hypermethylated in cells exposed to an HGM, a phenomenon potentially counteracted by PTS pretreatment, as shown by methyl-sensitive restriction enzyme PCR (MSRE-qPCR) analysis. Collectively, our findings highlight the ability of PTS to epigenetically regulate Nrf2 expression under hyperglycemic conditions, suggesting its therapeutic potential in managing diabetic complications.

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  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of pterostilbene (PTE) supplementation in feed on Arbor Acres broilers in terms of serum biochemical parameters, immune and inflammatory responses, antioxidant status, and intestinal morphological structure. For a duration of 42 days, a total of 480 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into four groups. Each group was assigned to receive either the basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of PTE. Each treatment consisted of eight replicates, with 15 chicks per replicate. In comparison with the control group, three PTE treatments significantly increased the lymphocyte transformation rate in the spleen of broilers. The automated biochemical analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and RT-qPCR analysis kits found that 400 mg/kg of PTE significantly increased the serum levels of complement C3, IL-4, and iNOS; reduced the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and mRNA levels of the genes IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, NLRP3, and IFN-γ; significantly improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes including CAT, GSH-Px, and T-SOD in the jejunum; and significantly reduced the MDA contents in the serum and jejunum of broilers. Nikon microscope observations and ImagePro Plus 6.0 measure results found that 400 mg/kg of PTE supplementation significantly reduced the relative length and weight of the jejunum and improved the jejunal villi structure, resulting in increased intestinal villi, deepened crypt, and an enhanced ratio of villi height to crypt depth (VH/CD). RT-qPCR and Western blot found that dietary PTE also resulted in increased mRNA levels of the genes Claudin-2, Occludin, ZO-1, and Sirt1, and decreased NF-κB protein levels in the jejunum. The results of this study demonstrated that dietary PTE improved the immune function and intestinal health of broilers by reducing inflammation and increasing the antioxidant capacity of the animals.

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  • Pterostilbene (PTE), a naturally occurring phenolic compound primarily found in blueberries, demonstrates neuroprotective properties. However, the role of PTE in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective role of PTE in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD animal model. Our findings demonstrate that administering PTE effectively reversed the diminished levels of dopamine in the striatum, thereby ameliorating motor impairments in the MPTP model. Moreover, PTE administration mitigated the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and reduced the upregulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) induced by MPTP. Mechanistic analysis revealed that PTE administration inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocytes, as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IL-1β in the MPTP model. Additionally, PTE administration decreased MPTP-induced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while increasing total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, thereby attenuating oxidative stress. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PTE exerts neuroprotective effects in the MPTP mouse model of PD by suppressing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Thus, PTE holds promise as a therapeutic agent for PD.

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  • Morus alba L. is a plant with a long history of dietary and medicinal uses. We hypothesized that M. alba possesses a significant biological potential. In that sense, we aimed to generate the chemical, antimicrobial, toxicological, and molecular profile of M. alba leaf and fruit extracts. Our results showed that extracts were rich in vitamin C, phenols, and flavonoids, with quercetin and pterostilbene concentrated in the leaf, while fisetin, hesperidin, resveratrol, and luteolin were detected in fruit. Extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. The widest inhibition zones were in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591. The values of the minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 15.62 μg/ml in Enterococcus faecalis to 500 μg/ml in several bacteria. Minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 μg/ml to 1000 μg/ml. Extracts impacted the biofilm formation in a concentration-dependent and species-specific manner. A significant difference in the frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges between the methanolic extract of fruit (0.5 μg/ml, 1 μg/ml, 2 μg/ml), as well as for the frequency of micronuclei between ethanolic extract of leaf (2 μg/ml) and the control group was observed. Molecular docking suggested that hesperidin possesses the highest binding affinity for multidrug efflux transporter AcrB and acyl-PBP2a from MRSA, as well as for the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. This study, by complementing previous research in this field, gives new insights that could be of great value in obtaining a more comprehensive picture of the Morus alba L. bioactive potential, chemical composition, antimicrobial and toxicological features, as well as molecular profile.

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  • Stilbenes are a small family of polyphenolic secondary metabolites produced in a variety of closely related plant species. These compounds function as phytoalexins, aiding plant defense against phytopathogens and plants' adaptation to abiotic environmental factors. Structurally, some important phenolic compounds have a 14-carbon skeleton and usually have two isomeric forms, and . Stilbenes contain two benzene rings linked by a molecule of ethanol or ethylene. Some derivatives of natural (poly)phenolic stilbenes such as resveratrol, pterostilbene, and combretastatin A-4 have shown various biological activities, such as anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as protection against heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes. Among stilbenes, resveratrol is certainly the most popular and extensively studied for its health properties. In recent years, an increasing number of stilbene compounds have been investigated for their bioactivity. This review focuses on the assessment of synthetic stilbene derivatives in terms of their biological activities and structure-activity relationship. The goal of this study is to consider the structural changes and different substitutions on phenyl rings that can improve the desired medicinal effects of stilbene-based compounds beyond the usual standards and subsequently discover biological activities by identifying effective alternatives of the evaluated compounds.

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  • Hepatic lipid metabolism is modulated by the circadian rhythm; therefore, circadian disruption may promote obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation. This study aims to investigate dietary pterostilbene (PSB) 's protective effect against high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced lipid accumulation exacerbated by chronic jet lag and the potential role of gut microbiota therein. Mice were treated with a HFD and chronic jet lag for 14 weeks. The experimental group was supplemented with 0.25% (w/w) PSB in its diet to evaluate whether PSB had a beneficial effect. Our study found that chronic jet lag exacerbates HFD-induced obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation, but these adverse effects were significantly mitigated by PSB supplementation. Specifically, PSB promoted hepatic lipolysis and β-oxidation by upregulating SIRT1 expression, which indirectly reduced oxidative stress caused by lipid accumulation. Additionally, the PSB-induced elevation of SIRT1 and SIRT3 expression helped prevent excessive autophagy and mitochondrial fission by activating Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes. The result was evidenced by the use of SIRT1 and SIRT3 inhibitors in in vitro studies, which demonstrated that activation of SIRT1 and SIRT3 by PSB is crucial for the translocation of PGC-1α and Nrf2, respectively. Moreover, the analysis of gut microbiota suggested that PSB's beneficial effects were partly due to its positive modulation of gut microbial composition and functionality. The findings of this study suggest the potential of dietary PSB as a candidate to improve hepatic lipid metabolism via several mechanisms. It may be developed as a treatment adjuvant in the future.

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  • A previously elusive organocatalytic protocol for the esterification of amides is disclosed. DABCO (10 mol%) is identified as an effective catalyst for the esterification of -pivaloyl amides. Although -pivaloyl amides are nearly planar (amide bond twist () = 4.54° and pyramidalization ( = 6.39°)) and resonance stabilized, esterification is achieved with high efficiency. The developed protocol is generic, phenols, thiophenols, aliphatic alcohols, and thiols were identified as effective substrates. Furthermore, the reaction features a broad substrate scope and excellent functional group tolerance. To exemplify the practical applicability of the developed protocol, the esterification of bioactive natural products, pterostilbene and menthol, is demonstrated. In addition, a series of competitive experiments were conducted to establish the reactivity pattern of alcohols, thiols, and phenols, which could serve as selectivity principles for future synthetic design. Our findings signify a notable advancement in utilizing amides as versatile synthetic building blocks in organic synthesis under metal-free conditions.

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  • Despite their subordination in humans, to a great extent, mitochondria maintain their independent status but tightly cooperate with the "host" on protecting the joint life quality and minimizing health risks. Under oxidative stress conditions, healthy mitochondria promptly increase mitophagy level to remove damaged "fellows" rejuvenating the mitochondrial population and sending fragments of mtDNA as SOS signals to all systems in the human body. As long as metabolic pathways are under systemic control and well-concerted together, adaptive mechanisms become triggered increasing systemic protection, activating antioxidant defense and repair machinery. Contextually, all attributes of mitochondrial patho-/physiology are instrumental for predictive medical approach and cost-effective treatments tailored to individualized patient profiles in primary (to protect vulnerable individuals again the health-to-disease transition) and secondary (to protect affected individuals again disease progression) care. Nutraceuticals are naturally occurring bioactive compounds demonstrating health-promoting, illness-preventing, and other health-related benefits. Keeping in mind health-promoting properties of nutraceuticals along with their great therapeutic potential and safety profile, there is a permanently growing demand on the application of mitochondria-relevant nutraceuticals. Application of nutraceuticals is beneficial only if meeting needs at individual level. Therefore, health risk assessment and creation of individualized patient profiles are of pivotal importance followed by adapted nutraceutical sets meeting individual needs. Based on the scientific evidence available for mitochondria-relevant nutraceuticals, this article presents examples of frequent medical conditions, which require protective measures targeted on mitochondria as a holistic approach following advanced concepts of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM/3PM) in primary and secondary care.

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  • Ecofriendly fabrics with antibacterial and anti-adhesion properties have been attracted an increasing attention in recent years. Herein, natural menthol modified polyacrylate (PMCA) antibacterial adhesion agent was synthesized by esterification and polymerisation while natural pterostilbene-grafted-chitosan (PGC) antibacterial agent was prepared through Mannich reaction. The antibacterial and anti-adhesion cotton fabric was fabricated through durable PMCA dip finishing and then layer-by-layer self-assembly of PGC. The results showed that the antibacterial adhesion rates and antibacterial rates of the dual-function cotton fabric against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli reached up to 99.9 %. Its antibacterial adhesion rates improved by 36.1 % and 40.1 % in comparison with those of cotton fabric treated by menthol alone. Meanwhile against S. aureus, the dual-function cotton fabrics improved the antibacterial rates by 56.7 % and 36.4 %, respectively, from those of chitosan- and pterostilbene-treated fabrics. Against E. coli, the improvements were 89.4 % and 24.8 %, respectively. After 20 household washings, the dual-function cotton fabric maintained >80 % of its original anti-adhesion and antibacterial rates against both species. The dual-function cotton fabric also possessed safe and excellent wearability.

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  • Black phosphorus (BP), as a representative metal-free semiconductor, has been extensively explored. It has a higher drug loading capacity in comparison to conventional materials and also possesses excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. Furthermore, BP nanosheets can enhance the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) upon near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, owing to their photothermal effect. However, the inherent instability of BP poses a significant limitation, highlighting the importance of surface modification to enhance its stability. Ischemic stroke (IS) is caused by the occlusion of blood vessels, and its treatment is challenging due to the hindrance caused by the BBB. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify improved methods for bypassing the BBB for more efficient IS treatment. This research devised a novel drug delivery approach based on pterostilbene (Pte) supported by BP nanosheets, modified with polydopamine (PDA) to form BP-Pte@PDA. This system shows robust stability and traverses the BBB using effective photothermal mechanisms. This enables the release of Pte upon pH and NIR stimuli, offering potential therapeutic advantages for treating IS. In a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model, the BP-Pte@PDA delivery system significantly reduced infarct size, and brain water content, improved neurological deficits, reduced the TLR4 inflammatory factor expression, and inhibited cell apoptosis. In summary, the drug delivery system fabricated in this study thus demonstrated good stability, therapeutic efficacy, and biocompatibility, rendering it suitable for clinical application.

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