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  • Sage ( L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant (MAP) belonging to the family. Its morphological, productive and chemical characteristics are affected by abiotic and biotic factors. The use of biostimulants seems to be one of the most interesting innovative practices due to fact they can represent a promising approach for achieving sustainable and organic agriculture. Despite a large application in horticulture, the use of biostimulants on MAPs has been poorly investigated. On this basis, a field experiment in a 2-year study was done to assess the effect of foliar treatments with different types of biostimulants (containing seaweeds, fulvic acids and protein hydrolysates) and two frequencies of application on morphological, productive, and chemical characteristics of grown organically in Mediterranean environment. Morphological, productive, and chemical parameters were affected by the factors. The biostimulant application generated higher plant height, chlorophyll content, relative water content, biomass yield and essential oil yield compared to control plants. In addition, more frequent application of biostimulants produced higher biomass and essential oil yield. The application of fulvic acid and protein hydrolysates every week produced the highest total fresh yields (between 3.9 and 8.7 t ha) and total dry yields (between 1.3 and 2.5 t ha). The essential oil yield almost doubled (33.9 kg ha) with a higher frequency of protein hydrolysates application. In this study, 44 essential oil compounds were identified, and the frequency factor significantly influenced the percentage of 38 compounds. The highest percentage of some of the most representative monoterpenes, such as 1,8-cineole, α-thujone and camphor, were observed in biostimulated plants, with average increases between 6% and 35% compared to control plants. The highest values for total phenolics, rosmarinic acid, antioxidant activity were obtained in control plants and with a lower frequency of biostimulant applications. This study emphasizes how biostimulant applications may be used to improve sage production performance and essential oil parameters when produced in agricultural organic system. At the same time, biostimulants application caused a decrease in total phenolic, antioxidant activity and rosmarinic acid values.

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  • Dry eye disease (DED) is a prevalent ocular disorder characterized by unstable tear film condition with loss of aqueous or mucin, excessive oxidative stress, and inflammation, leading to discomfort and potential damage to the ocular surface. Current DED therapies have shown restricted therapeutic effects such as frequent dosing and temporary relief with potential unwanted side effects, urgently necessitating the development of innovative efficient therapeutic approaches. Herein, we developed rosmarinic acid (RosA) conjugated gelatin nanogels loading diquafosol sodium (DQS), DRGNG, for simultaneous ROS-scavenging and mucin-secreting DED treatment. Mechanically, DRGNG suppressed the production of ROS, reduced inflammatory factors, and prompted mucin secretion in vitro and in vivo. The whole transcriptome RNA sequencing in vitro further provided a detailed analysis of the upregulation of anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and mucin-promotion pathways. Therapeutically, both in evaporative DED and aqueous deficient DED models, the dual-functional DRGNG could prolong the retention time at the ocular surface, efficiently suppress the oxidative stress response, reverse ocular surface morphology, and recover tear film homeostasis, thus alleviating the DED when the dosage is halved compared to the commercial Diquas®. Our findings contribute to developing innovative therapies for DED and offer insights into the broader applications of nanogels in ocular drug delivery and oxidative stress-related conditions.

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  • Hyaluronidase possesses the capacity to degrade high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid into smaller fragments, subsequently initiating a cascade of inflammatory responses and activating dendritic cells. In cases of bacterial infections, substantial quantities of HAase are generated, potentially leading to severe conditions such as cellulitis. Inhibiting hyaluronidase activity may offer anti-inflammatory benefits. Bunge, a traditional Chinese medicine, has anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects on skin inflammation are not well understood. This study screened and evaluated the active components of that inhibit skin inflammation, using ligand fishing, enzyme activity assays, drug combination analysis, and molecular docking. By combining magnetic nanomaterials with hyaluronidase functional groups, we immobilized hyaluronidase on magnetic nanomaterials for the first time in the literature. We then utilized an immobilized enzyme to specifically adsorb the ligand; two ligands were identified as salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid by HPLC analysis after desorption of the dangling ligands, to complete the rapid screening of potential anti-inflammatory active ingredients in roots. The median-effect equation and combination index results indicated that their synergistic inhibition of hyaluronidase at a fixed 3:2 ratio was enhanced with increasing concentrations. Kinetic studies revealed that they acted as mixed-type inhibitors of hyaluronidase. Salvianolic acid B had K and K values of 0.22 and 0.96 μM, respectively, while rosmarinic acid had values of 0.54 and 4.60 μM. Molecular docking revealed that salvianolic acid B had a higher affinity for hyaluronidase than rosmarinic acid. In addition, we observed that a 3:2 combination of SAB and RA significantly decreased the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. These findings identify salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid as key components with the potential to inhibit skin inflammation, as found in . This research is significant for developing skin inflammation treatments. It demonstrates the effectiveness and broad applicability of the magnetic nanoparticle-based ligand fishing approach for screening enzyme inhibitors derived from herbal extracts.

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  • The development and production of secondary metabolites from priceless medicinal plants are restricted by drought stress. Mentha pulegium L. belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is a significant plant grown in the Mediterranean region for its medicinal and aesthetic properties. This study investigated the effects of three polyethylene glycol (PEG) (0, 5, and 10%) as a drought stress inducer and four silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) (0, 25, 50, and 100 ppm) concentrations as an elicitor to overcome the adverse effect of drought stress, on the growth parameters and bioactive chemical composition of M. pulegium L. plants grown in vitro. The experiment was performed as a factorial experiment using a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of 12 treatments with two factors (3 PEG × 4 SiNPs concentrations), 6 replicates were used for each treatment for a total of 72 experimental units.The percentage of shoot formation was inversely proportional to the PEG concentration; for the highest PEG concentration, the lowest percentage of shoot formation (70.26%) was achieved at 10% PEG. SiNPs at 50 ppm enhanced shoot formation, the number of shoots, shoot height, fresh and dry weight, rosmarinic acid, total phenols, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. The methanol extract from M. pulegium revealed the presence of significant secondary metabolites using gas chromatography‒mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal constituents of the extract were limonene (2.51, 2.99%), linalool (3.84, 4.64%), geraniol (6.49, 8.77%), menthol (59.73, 65.43%), pulegone (3.76, 2.76%) and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester or methyl palmitate (3.2, 4.71%) for the 0 ppm SiNPs, PEG 0% and 50 ppm SiNPs, and PEG 10%, respectively. Most of the chemical components identified by GC‒MS in the methanol extract were greater in the 50 ppm SiNP and 10% PEG treatment groups than in the control group. SiNP improves drought tolerance by regulating biosynthesis and accumulating some osmolytes and lessens the negative effects of polyethylene glycol-induced drought stress.Based on the results, the best treatment for most of the parameters was 50 ppm SiNPs combined with 10% PEG, the morphological and chemical characteristics were inversely proportional to the PEG concentration, as the highest PEG concentration (10%) had the lowest results. Most parameters decreased at the highest SiNP concentration (100 ppm), except for the DPPH scavenging percentage, as there was no significant difference between the 50 and 100 ppm SiNPs.

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  • Iron deposition and ferroptosis are involved in ischemic stroke injury, but the choice of drugs for treatment is limited.

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  • The article studies how L. extract and rosmarinic acid (RA) affect lung inflammation, pathology, and oxidative stress in rats with ovalbumin-induced asthma.

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  • Ancient classic prescription play a crucial role in the preservation and advancement of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theories. They represent a significant milestone in the ongoing development and transmission of TCM knowledge and practices and are considered one of the breakthroughs in the development of TCM inheritance. In the process of developing ancient classic prescriptions, many problems may still arise in ensuring quality consistency between traditional methods and modern production processes, among which the extraction process poses major challenges. This paper introduces a practical approach extracting an ancient classic prescription using a modern extraction process. The technique is demonstrated through the study of the extraction process of Shenshou Taiyi powder (STP).

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  • The advent of the new coronavirus, leading to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, has presented a substantial worldwide health hazard since its inception in the latter part of 2019. The severity of the current pandemic is exacerbated by the occurrence of re-infection or co-infection with SARS-CoV-2. Hence, comprehending the molecular process underlying the pathophysiology of sepsis and discerning possible molecular targets for therapeutic intervention holds significant importance. For the first time, 31 metabolites were tentatively identified by GC-MS analysis from Alpinia malaccensis. On the other hand, five phenolic compounds were identified and quantified from the plant in HPLC-DAD analysis, including (-) epicatechin, rutin hydrate, rosmarinic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. Nine GC-MS and five HPLC-identified metabolites had shown interactions with 45 and 30 COVID-19-associated human proteins, respectively. Among the proteins, PARP1, FN1, PRKCA, EGFR, ALDH2, AKR1C3, AHR, and IKBKB have been found as potential therapeutic targets to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection. KEGG pathway analysis also showed a strong association of FN1, EGFR, and IKBKB genes with SARS-CoV-2 viral replication and cytokine overexpression due to viral infection. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis also showed that TP53, MMP9, FN1, EGFR, and NOS2 proteins are highly related to the genes involved in COVID-19 comorbidity. These proteins showed interaction with the plant phytoconstituents as well. As the study offers a robust network-based procedure for identifying biomolecules relevant to COVID-19 disease, A. malaccensis could be a good source of effective therapeutic agents against COVID-19 and related viral diseases.

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  • The phytohormones cytokinins are essential mediators of developmental and environmental signaling, primarily during cell division and endophytic interactions, among other processes. Considering the limited understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that affect the growth and bioactivity of the medicinal plant Nepeta nuda (Lamiaceae), our study aimed to explore how cytokinins influence the plant's metabolic status. Exogenous administration of active cytokinin forms on in vitro N. nuda internodes stimulated intensive callus formation and de novo shoot regeneration, leading to a marked increase in biomass. This process involved an accumulation of oxidants, which were scavenged by peroxidases using phenolics as substrates. The callus tissue formed upon the addition of the cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) acted as a sink for sugars and phenolics during the allocation of nutrients between the culture medium and regenerated plants. In accordance, the cytokinin significantly enhanced the content of polar metabolites and their respective in vitro biological activities compared to untreated in vitro and wild-grown plants. The BAP-mediated accumulation of major phenolic metabolites, rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA), corresponded with variations in the expression levels of genes involved in their biosynthesis. In contrast, the accumulation of iridoids and the expression of corresponding biosynthetic genes were not significantly affected. In conclusion, our study elucidated the mechanism of cytokinin action in N. nuda in vitro culture and demonstrated its potential in stimulating the production of bioactive compounds. This knowledge could serve as a basis for further investigations of the environmental impact on plant productivity.

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  • To assess the effects of Thunbergia laurifolia L. extract (TLE) on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a rat model.

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