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  • Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (SCA) fruits are found in India's sub-Himalayan, tropical, and central regions and have been utilized for centuries in traditional Indian medicine to treat various ailments. In recent times, a growing body of research has emerged indicating that the extracts and active components found in SCA fruits possess qualities that can potentially inhibit the development of cancer and inflammatory markers.

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  • Marking nut or Bhilawa is the fruit of plant Linn (Family; ). It belongs to genera which also includes cashew nuts. It is closely related to and genera, which includes poison ivy and poison sumac and causes similar skin reaction due to the presence of compound urushiol. Marking nut dermatitis is an uncommon problem but has special importance in military dermatology. Individuals can get exposed to this plant during camping which can result in an irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. It can also be applied deliberately to cause factitious dermatitis. We present 5 cases of factitious dermatitis resulting from application of marking nut.

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  • L.f. has been commonly used in various traditional medicines from ancient times. The nuts have been described in Ayurveda medication systems to treat numerous clinical ailments. However, isolating phytochemical constituents from nuts remain challenging and exhibits cytotoxic effects on other cells. In this study, we have standardized procedures for isolating phytochemicals from the leaf extract. The ethyl acetate leaf extract selectively affects cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 0.57 µg/ml in MCF-7 cells) in various cancer cell lines and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the non-malignant cells were relatively insensitive to the extract. Next, the incubation of the leaf extract induces cell cycle arrest and suppresses cancer cell migration in the cell culture model. Moreover, oral administration of extract significantly restored tumor growth in mice. Together, these observations suggest the anti-cancer activities of L.f. leaf potential for both and models.

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  • Drugs associated adversities are common in health care practice. These adversities are often associated with the dose-related, time-related and methods of drug intake and their rationality in a given condition but can also be unrelated to either of these causes. Such unpredictable drug reactions are highly important from the perspective of safe use of a drug and to prevent complications from any such adversity which is relatively uncommon. The case reported here is a likely case of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) like idiosyncratic adversity after oral consumption of an ayurvedic formulation containing Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium). DRESS is found associated with many other classes of drugs but its association with ayurvedic drug has not yet been reported. Upon Naranjo probability scale the event scored 6, putting it into the category of probable drug related adversity. This report widens our understanding towards the possibility of delayed and idiosyncratic drug adversities upon the consumption of certain ayurvedic drugs.

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  • Memory and its care were significant sociocultural and scientific topics in early modern Spain. Although a major interest in memory was related to its legal and rhetorical implications, medical treatises discussing memory, cognitive impairment, and its treatment began to appear in the 16th and 17th century. Among these treatises, ( "De memoria et reminiscentia"), published in 1629 by the physician Juan Gutiérrez de Godoy, is unique in that it is entirely devoted to the medical aspects of memory. Although many of its concepts are now superseded, the treatise is valuable to understand the views on memory and cognitive impairment in 17th-century Spain and their sources, as Gutiérrez quoted many classical, medieval, and contemporary scholars and physicians. The book, written in Latin, is exclusively devoted to memory from a physiologic and medical point of view, with chapters on the classification of memory loss, a description of its causes (including old age, something not widely recognized before), and several chapters on its prevention and treatment, with a fascinating emphasis on , or anacardium, an intranasal concoction made with the "marking nut," the fruit of the tree (also known as Malacca bean), with alleged memory-enhancing properties. We review Gutiérrez's , putting it into the wider intellectual and social context in the Europe of its time, and discuss the relevance and purported neuropharmacologic effects of .

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  • 'Bhallatakadi Ghrita' (BG), comprising the plant extracts of Semecarpus anacardium L., Argemone mexicana L., Cocculus hirsutus L., and Woodfordia fruticosa K. 'Murcchana samskara' of ghee before any 'ghrita-paka' preparation evidenced the maximum acceptability for topical application. The current study dealt with the effect of the 'Murcchana' process on the therapeutic efficacy of BG. In the first step, 'Murcchita' ghee was prepared as per reference texts and then developed the 'Murcchita Bhallatakadi Ghrita' (M-BG), which was further assessed for wound healing activity using incision and excision wound animal models. 'Murcchanasamskara' altered the wound healing ability of M-BG (100% wound contraction on 15th post wounding day with 13.50 ± 0.22 days complete re-epithelization time and 562.33 ± 7.37 g breaking strength). The presence of antioxidants, polyphenols, flavonoids, and fatty acids (known for their potential wound healing properties) in M-BG could accelerate the wound contraction rate (P < 0.001). The present investigation has corroborated the Ayurvedic/traditional attribute of 'Murcchanasamskara' to augment the medicinal properties of the BG.

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  • Bhilawanol (Bh) and anacardic acid (AA) are two lipid-soluble compounds mostly found in the nut of Semecarpus anacardium (SA). This herb has many medicinal properties including enhancing learning and memory, yet its active compounds have not been studied for neuroprotective effects. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of Bh and AA against glutamate induced cell death in the adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line of rats (PC12 cells). Cell viability, toxicity and calcium influx were determined by MTT assay, LDH release assay and Fluo-3 imaging while apoptosis was assayed by caspase-3 and Bcl-2 gene expression. Our results showed that Bh and AA treatments significantly increased cell viability, reduced cell toxicity and calcium influx in PC12 cells in addition to suppressing the reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, AA treatment decreased caspase-3 expression level whereas both Bh and AA enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 in PC12 cells. Both compounds potently inhibited acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) in a dose and time dependent manner. These findings suggest that the traditional use of SA may be explained on the basis of both Bh and AA showing neuroprotective potential due to their effects on enhancing cell viability, reducing cell toxicity most probably by reducing excessive calcium influx and suppression of ROS as well as by decreasing the expression of proapoptotic caspase 3 gene and increasing the expression of antiapoptotic gene Bcl2. Traditional use in enhancing learning and memory was justified in part by inhibition of AChE.

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  • Linn. ( Anacardiaceae), commonly known marking nuts has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments (such as antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic etc) since ancient times.Based on the wide pharmacological activities of this plant, the present study was aimed to explore the antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic potential in high fat diet fed rats using catechol derivatives I-IV and biflavonoid isolated from seeds of . Oral administration of catechol derivatives I-IV and biflavonoid at a concentration of 50 mg/kg b.wt to high fat diet fed rats for a period of 30 days significantly decreased the lipid profiles, body weight gain and organ weight when compared to untreated hypercholesterolemic rats. However, biflavonoid treated hypercholesterolemic rats showed more pronounced effects in all the parameters tested when compared to all catechol derivatives (I-IV) treated hypercholesterolemic rats. The effect produced by biflavonoid on various parameters was comparable to that of simvastastin- a standard drug. In vitro antioxidant activities were also conducted using these five compounds in which biflavonoid showed more significant antioxidant potential at a concentration of 1000 µg/ml when compared to catechol derivatives (I-IV). The pronounced antioxidant potential of biflavonoid might have contributed to the hypolipidemic action in hypercholesterolemic rats and improved oil red O staining of thoracic aorta has also supported the parameters investigated. Further, the molecular mechanism of cholesterol lowering potential of this drug is needed.

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  • The knowledge of purification process is unique since it deals with various physical and chemical changes in the inherent toxic properties during the process and it renders a strong support in the art of medicine preparation in Siddha system of medicine. L. is listed under Schedule e (1) drugs and purification is mandatory before its administration in medicine preparation. The bioactive compounds present in the plant like alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, steroids enhance the medical efficacy and defense mechanisms of the plant. Hence an attempt has been made to reveal the chemical change, occurring during the purification process in Siddha system of medicine by evaluating the phytochemicals and anacardic acid which is responsible for forming blisters and dermatitis.

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  • is widely considered as the Indian name for clarified butterfat and processing of with therapeutic herbs i.e., is renowned for augmenting their medicinal properties. The wound is considered as a challenging clinical problem with early and late complications. To reduce the burden of wounds with the shortest period and minimum scaring, an attempt was made to prepare and evaluate the wound healing potential of based polyherbal formulation.

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