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  • High sugar content in peanut seeds is one of the major breeding objectives for peanut flavor improvement. In order to explore the genetic control of sugar accumulation in peanut kernels, we constructed a recombinant inbred line population of 256 F lines derived from the Luhua11 × 06B16 cross. A high-resolution genetic map was constructed with 3692 bin markers through whole genome re-sequencing. The total map distance was 981.65 cM and the average bin marker distance was 0.27cM. A major stable QTL region (/) was identified on linkage group (LG) B09 associated with both sucrose content (SC) and soluble sugar content (SSC) explaining 21.51-33.58% phenotypic variations. This major QTL region was consistently detected in three environments and mapped within a physical interval of 1.56 Mb on chromosome B09, and six candidate genes were identified. These results provide valuable information for further map-based cloning of favorable allele for sugar content in peanut.

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  • To date, the risk of developing atherosclerosis has extended beyond Western countries and now affecting individuals from various ethnic backgrounds and age groups. Traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis, such as hypercholesterolemia, has been better controlled than before due to highly effective and inexpensive therapies at lowering plasma cholesterol levels. However, the role of reducing dietary cholesterol intake, as a public healthy strategy, in preventing the occurrence of cardiovascular mortalities has been recently challenged. Indeed, despite our continuous decline of dietary cholesterol intake within the last 50 years, the incidence of cardiovascular mortalities has continued to rise, thus raising the possibility that other dietary factors, such as fructose-containing sugars, are the major culprit. In the 1970s, John Yudkin first proposed that sugar was the predominant dietary factor that underlies the majority of cardiovascular mortalities, yet his hypothesis was dismissed. However, over the last 25 years substantial scientific evidence has been accumulated to support Yudkin's hypothesis. The objectives of this review are to highlight Yudkin's significant contribution to nutritional science by reviewing his hypothesis and summarizing the recent advances in our understanding of fructose metabolism. The metabolic consequences of fructose metabolism, such as fructose-induced uricemia, insulin resistance, lipoprotein hyperproduction and chronic inflammation, and how they are linked to atherosclerosis as risk factors will be discussed. Finally, the review will explore areas that warrant future research and raise important considerations that we need to evaluate when designing future studies.

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  • Our previous studies have demonstrated that the activated Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway (CAP) effectively suppresses systemic inflammation and immunity in early sepsis. Some parameters of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) could be used to reflect the regulatory activity of CAP. However, in the early stages of severe sepsis of some patients, the inflammatory storm can still result in multiple organs dysfunction and even death, suggesting they lose CAP's modulation ability. Since CAP is part of the vagus nerve and is directly innervated by the Medullary Visceral Zone (MVZ), we can reasonably concluded that pathological changes induced by MVZ's neuroinflammation should be responsible for CAP's dysfunction in modulating systemic inflammation in early sepsis.

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  • The glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70) contains bacterial extracellular multidomain enzymes, synthesizing α-glucans from sucrose or starch-like substrates. A few dozen have been biochemically characterized, while crystal structures cover only the core domains and lack significant parts of auxiliary domains. Here we present a systematic overview of GH70 enzymes and their 3D structural organization and bacterial origin. A representative set of 234 permuted and 25 nonpermuted GH70 enzymes was generated, covering 12 bacterial families and 3 phyla and containing 185 predicted glucansucrases (GS), 15 branching sucrases (BrS), 8 "twin" GS-BrSs, and 51 α-glucanotransferases (α-GT). Analysis of AlphaFold models of all 259 entries showed that, apart from the core domains, the structural variation regarding auxiliary domains is far greater than anticipated, with nine different domain types. We analyzed the phylogenetic distribution and discuss the possible roles of auxiliary domains as well as possible correlations between enzyme specificity, auxiliary domain type, and bacterial origin.

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  • Depression is a complicated neuropsychiatric condition with an incompletely understoodetiology, making the discovery of effective therapies challenging. Animal models have been crucial in improving our understanding of depression and enabling antidepressant medication development. The CUMS model has significant face validity since it induces fundamental depression symptoms in humans, such as anhedonia, behavioral despair, anxiety, cognitive impairments, and changes in sleep, food, and social behavior. Its construct validity is demonstrated by the dysregulation of neurobiological systems involved in depression, including monoaminergic neurotransmission, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroinflammatory processes, and structural brain alterations. Critically, the model's predictive validity is demonstrated by the reversal of CUMS-induced deficits following treatment with clinically effective antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. This review comprehensivelyassesses the multifarious depressive-like phenotypes in the CUMS model using behavioral paradigms like sucrose preference, forced swim, tail suspension, elevated plus maze, and novel object recognition tests. It investigates the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie CUMS-induced behaviors, including signaling pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB, cyclooxygenase-2, glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, and the kynurenine pathway. This review emphasizes the CUMS model's importance as a translationally relevant tool for unraveling the complex mechanisms underlying depression and facilitating the development of improved and targeted interventions for this debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder by providing a comprehensive overview of its validity, behavioral assessments, and neurobiological underpinnings.

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  • Cryopreservation of human kidney organoids.

    Recent advances in stem cell research have led to the creation of organoids, miniature replicas of human organs, offering innovative avenues for studying diseases. Kidney organoids, with their ability to replicate complex renal structures, provide a novel platform for investigating kidney diseases and assessing drug efficacy, albeit hindered by labor-intensive generation and batch variations, highlighting the need for tailored cryopreservation methods to enable widespread utilization. Here, we evaluated cryopreservation strategies for kidney organoids by contrasting slow-freezing and vitrification methods. 118 kidney organoids were categorized into five conditions. Control organoids followed standard culture, while two slow-freezing groups used 10% DMSO (SF1) or commercial freezing media (SF2). Vitrification involved V1 (20% DMSO, 20% Ethylene Glycol with sucrose) and V2 (15% DMSO, 15% Ethylene Glycol). Assessment of viability, functionality, and structural integrity post-thawing revealed notable differences. Vitrification, particularly V1, exhibited superior viability (91% for V1, 26% for V2, 79% for SF1, and 83% for SF2 compared to 99.4% in controls). 3D imaging highlighted distinct nephron segments among groups, emphasizing V1's efficacy in preserving both podocytes and tubules in kidney organoids. Cisplatin-induced injury revealed a significant reduction in regenerative capacities in organoids cryopreserved by flow-freezing methods, while the V1 method did not show statistical significance compared to the unfrozen controls. This study underscores vitrification, especially with high concentrations of cryoprotectants, as an effective approach for maintaining kidney organoid viability and structure during cryopreservation, offering practical approaches for kidney organoid research.

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  • Menopause triggers hormonal changes that can manifest in oral symptoms like dysgeusia, xerostomia, and burning sensations, substantially impacting daily life, including chewing, swallowing, and taste perception. Menopausal women are particularly susceptible to nutritional fluctuations, including variations in zinc levels, which are believed to be linked to taste perception. Taste alterations can render food unappetizing, leading to malnutrition and diminished quality of life. The study aims to assess taste alterations, salivary flow rate, and zinc levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, investigating the correlation between these factors.

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  • Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are frequent in patients after cardiac surgery. This study assessed whether a bundle of care including pre-operative and post-operative administration of erythropoietin (EPO) with intravenous iron supplementation, and restrictive transfusion adjusted for ScvO could result in reduced postoperative transfusions.

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  • Most isolates from humans do not utilize D-sucrose as a substrate for fermentation or growth. Previous work has shown that the Csc pathway allows some to utilize sucrose for slow growth, and this pathway has been engineered in W strains to enhance use of sucrose as a feedstock for industrial applications. An alternative sucrose utilization pathway, Scr, was first identified in and has been reported in some and isolates. We show here that the Scr pathway is native to an important subset of phylogroup B2 lineages that lack the Csc pathway but grow rapidly on sucrose. Laboratory strains derived from MG1655 (phylogroup A, ST10) are unable to utilize sucrose and lack the and genes, but a recombinant plasmid-borne locus enables rapid growth on and fermentation of sucrose. Genome analyses of indicate that the locus is widespread in other ; including and species, and some and species. In contrast, the Csc pathway is limited mostly to , some species (in which loci are rendered non-functional by various mutations), and . The more efficient Scr pathway likely has greater potential than the Csc pathway for bioindustrial applications of and other using sucrose as a feedstock.

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  • To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Zusanli" (ST36) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP6) on cancer pain and concomitant negative emotion in cancer pain model mice, and to explore its molecular mechanisms in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) by using transcriptomics techniques.

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