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  • Photo-galvanic cells are liquid electrolyte-based dye-sensitized solar cells. Chemically, the dye/pigment photo-sensitizer, reductant, surfactant, and alkali materials are the main fabrication components of these cells. Most dye/pigment materials are more soluble and stable at high pH. The pH of Potassium hydroxide (an alkali of plant nutrient 'potassium' element) is very high. Therefore, Potassium hydroxide is supposed to be the best eco-friendly and effective alkali medium for photogalvanics. As far as alkali is concerned, NaOH has been exploited extensively in photo-galvanics. Although, the NaOH-based photo-galvanics show good electrical output, it is plagued with some drawbacks like shorter shelf life, high cost, unsafe for skin, low conductivity, low water solubility, etc. Therefore, in the present research, the KOH has been exploited as an alkali material for harvesting solar energy using the Sunset Yellow FCF dye sensitizer-Ascorbic acid reductant-CTAB surfactant cylindrical cell designed photo-galvanic system. In the present study, the observed optimum cell performance is as follows-open-circuit potential 777 mV, maximum current 25000 μA, short-circuit current 5600 μA, power 733.6 μW, fill factor 0.16, and efficiency is 19.77 % at pH 14.30 The Sunset Yellow FCF dye shows very high photostability and photo-absorption with KOH alkali. The power storage capacity is sufficiently robust, as the cell is capable of supplying power at its ∼36.16 % capacity after a very long time of 24 h. The KOH-Sunset Yellow FCF dye sensitizer-Ascorbic acid reductant-CTAB surfactant photo-galvanics in the present study show improved results over the reported results for the NaOH-Sunset Yellow FCF dye sensitizer-Ascorbic acid reductant-CTAB surfactant photo-galvanics. The reasons for the good photo-galvanics with KOH alkali may be attributed to some peculiar chemical and physical properties of KOH vis-à-vis the chemical and physical properties of NaOH.

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  • A highly sensitive ultra-small ratiometric fluorescence nanosphere probe was successfully manufactured to detect Sunset Yellow (SY). The probe, CMCS@N, S-CDs/Rh6G, was formed through the encapsulation of N, S-CDs and Rh6G within carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) through in situ cross-linking. Remarkably, our nanosphere probe had an average grain diameter of 6.80 nm and exhibited excellent dispersibility without the need for additional solvents. The probe exhibited a strong linear relationship with SY concentration in the range of 0.26-100 μM, with a low detection limit of 0.078 μM. Furthermore, SY demonstrated strong fluorescence quenching capability on our nanosphere probe, with the fluorescence quenching mechanism involving a combined effects of inner filter effect (IFE) and static quenching. Notably, our nanosphere probe retained the bacteriostatic properties of CMCS, with a substantial bacteriostasis rate of 77.58 %, introducing novel potential applications.

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  • , commonly known as coconut is rich in coir dust (CCD) at its outer surface, which is a very significant agri waste used as biosorbent for wastewater treatment. The current work addresses use of CCD for removal of hazardous Sunset Yellow dye (SY) FCF widely used as coloring agent in food industry, from wastewater. The uptake capacity in batch and column mode is 82 mg/g and 160 mg/g respectively. Characterization study including SEM, FTIR and BET results also supported the adsorption process. The comparative analysis with other natural biosorbents showed best results of biosorption with CCD. The output was better at high pH (10) and lower concentration of dye (5 mg/L). The kinetic study suggested pseudo second order rate revealing both adsorbate-adsorbent interdependency. The presence of covalent bonding or valence forces between the interfaces, suggested chemisorption as the rate limiting mechanism with valence forces, hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking being the chief forces responsible in binding of the dye molecules to the surface. The isotherm supported Langmuir model with monolayer and uniform adsorption at the interfaces. The interference test confirmed slight decrease in percent adsorption with interference from chloride and sulfate as dominating ions. The techno-economic feasibility highly recommended in field application of the substitute (net profit value, 1.256 Rs/m, input cost, 0.052 Rs/m). The industrial sample analysis with lab to land approach justified sustainability and commercial viability of the present work.

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  • Sunset Yellow (SY), an azo synthetic food dye, is widely used in the food industry. Although there are different opinions on its effect on people, its use is regulated in the European Union. If the Acceptable Daily Intake of 2.5 mg/kg/bw is exceeded, it may have pathological and biochemical effects on organs. There are not enough studies on the effects of SY on growth and development in mammals. This study was conducted to determine the effect of SY on the morphological parameters of mice at different ages (four, eight, and ten weeks old). The treatment and control groups were created with Swiss Albino mice (n: 6). SY was administered orally for 28 days (30 mg/kg/bw/week). On the last day of the study, the mice were weighed, and tail, temporal region, femur, and crown-rubmp-length values were measured using a digital caliper. A statistical difference in average body weight was observed in the SY groups (p < 0.05). SY administration during childhood caused retardation in growth and development parameters. Therefore, SY may cause weight gain and affect morphological parameters. Additional studies are required to investigate the effects of SY at different doses and durations.

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  • Sunset Yellow (SY) is a widely used food coloring in the food industry. However, exceeding the allowable limit of this dye poses a significant threat to human health. To address this issue, we developed -derived nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) with a stable blue fluorescence through hydrothermal treatment for SY determination. The quantum yield (QY) of these N-CDs was found to be up to 10.63%. Physical characterization of N-CDs was performed using various spectroscopic techniques to confirm their excellent photostability and non-toxic properties. Furthermore, the presence of SY had a substantial quenching effect on the fluorescence intensity (/) of the N-CDs. Leveraging this observation, we developed a fluorescent sensor for the determination of SY in the concentration range of 0.05 to 35.0 μM, with a limit of detection (LOD, 3/) of 17 nM. The excellent fluorescent sensor also showed satisfactory results in the practical drink samples. Moreover, the stability and cytotoxicity of N-CDs as a fluorescent probe were studied. Finally, the N-CDs were applied to cell imaging using A549 cells.

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  • Although concern persists regarding possible adverse effects of consumption of synthetic azo food dyes, the mechanisms of any such effects remain unclear. We have tested the hypothesis that chronic consumption of the food dye Sunset Yellow (SY) perturbs the composition of the gut microbiota and alters gut integrity. Male rats were administered SY orally for 12 weeks. Analysis of fecal samples before and after dye administration demonstrated SY-induced microbiome dysbiosis. SY treatment reduced the abundance of beneficial taxa such as Treponema 2, Anaerobiospirillum, Helicobacter, Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, and Prevotellaceae UCG-003, while increasing the abundance of the potentially pathogenic microorganisms Prevotella 2 and Oribacterium. Dysbiosis disrupted gut integrity, altering the jejunal adherens junction complex E-cadherin/β-catenin and decreasing Trefoil Factor (TFF)-3. SY administration elevated LPS serum levels, activated the inflammatory inflammasome cascade TLR4/NLRP3/ASC/cleaved-activated caspase-1 to mature IL-1β and IL-18, and activated caspase-11 and gasdermin-N, indicating pyroptosis and increased intestinal permeability. The possibility that consumption of SY by humans could have effects similar to those that we have observed in rats should be examined.

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  • Skin cancer and other skin-related inflammatory pathologies are rising due to heightened exposure to environmental pollutants and carcinogens. In this context, natural products and repurposed compounds hold promise as novel therapeutic and preventive agents. Strengthening the skin's antioxidant defense mechanisms is pivotal in neutralizing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitigating oxidative stress. Sunset Yellow (SY) exhibits immunomodulatory characteristics, evidenced by its capacity to partially inhibit the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, regulate immune cell populations, and modulate the activation of lymphocytes. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-genotoxic properties of SY using in-silico, in vitro, and physiochemical test systems, and to further explore its potential role in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA)/ 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced two-stage skin carcinogenesis. In vitro experiments showed that pre-treatment of SY significantly enhanced the cell viability of HaCaT cells when exposed to tertiary-Butyl Hydrogen Peroxide (tBHP). This increase was accompanied by reduced ROS levels, restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential, and notable reduction in DNA damage in (SY + tBHP) treated cells. Mechanistic investigations using DPPH chemical antioxidant activity test and potentiometric titrations confirmed SY's antioxidant properties, with a standard reduction potential ( ) of 0.211 V. Remarkably, evaluating the effect of topical application of SY in DMBA/TPA-induced two-step skin carcinogenesis model revealed dose-dependent decreases in tumor latency, incidence, yield, and burden over 21-weeks. Furthermore, computational analysis and experimental validations identified GSK3β, KEAP1 and EGFR as putative molecular targets of SY. Collectively, our findings reveal that SY enhances cellular antioxidant defenses, exhibits anti-genotoxic effects, and functions as a promising chemopreventive agent.

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  • Protein aggregation poses a significant concern in the field of food sciences, and various factors, such as synthetic food dyes, can contribute to protein aggregation. One such dye, Sunset Yellow (SY), is commonly employed in the food industry. Trypsin was used as a model protein to assess the impact of SY. We employed several biophysical techniques to examine the binding and aggregation mechanisms between SY and trypsin at different pHs. Results from intrinsic fluorescence measurements indicate a stronger interaction between SY and trypsin at pH 2.0 compared to pH 6.0. Turbidity data reveal trypsin aggregation in the presence of 0.05-3.0 mM SY at pH 2.0, while no aggregation was observed at pH 6.0. Kinetic data demonstrate a rapid, lag-phase-free SY-induced aggregation of trypsin. Circular dichroism analysis reveals that trypsin adopts a secondary structure in the presence of SY at pH 6.0, whereas at pH 2.0, the secondary structure was nearly lost with increasing SY concentrations. Furthermore, turbidity and kinetics data suggest that trypsin aggregation depends on trypsin concentrations and pH. Our study highlights potential health risks associated with the consumption of SY, providing insights into its impact on human health and emphasizing the necessity for further research in this field.

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  • Sunset Yellow FCF (SY FCF) is one of the widely used synthetic azo dyes in the food industry whose content has to be controlled for safety reasons. Electrochemical sensors are a promising tool for this type of task. A voltammetric sensor based on a combination of tin and cerium dioxide nanoparticles (SnO-CeO NPs) with surfactants has been developed for SY FCF determination. The synergetic effect of both types of NPs has been confirmed. Surfactants of various natures (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), Brij 35, and hexadecylpyridinium bromide (HDPB)) have been tested as dispersive media. The best effects, i.e., the highest oxidation currents of SY FCF, have been observed in the case of HDPB. The sensor demonstrates a 4.5-fold-higher electroactive surface area and a 38-fold-higher electron transfer rate compared to the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrooxidation of SY FCF is an irreversible, two-electron, diffusion-driven process involving proton transfer. In differential pulse mode in Britton-Robinson buffer (BRB) pH 2.0, the sensor gives a linear response to SY FCF from 0.010 to 1.0 μM and from 1.0 to 100 μM with an 8.0 nM detection limit. The absence of an interferent effect from other typical food components and colorants has been shown. The sensor has been tested on soft drinks and validated with the standard chromatographic method.

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  • Analysis of food additives is highly significant in the food industry and directly related to human health. This investigation into the removal efficiency of sunset yellow as an azo dye in fruit juices using Chitosan-nickel ferrite nanoparticles (Cs@NiFeO NPs). The nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using various techniques. The effective parameters for removing sunset yellow were optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the central composite design (CCD). Under the optimum conditions, the highest removal efficiency (94.90%) was obtained for the initial dye concentration of 26.48 mg L at a pH of 3.87, a reaction time of 67.62 min, and a nanoparticle dose of 0.038 g L. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model had a better fit for experimental data (R = 0.98) than the other kinetic models. The equilibrium adsorption process followed the Freundlich isotherm model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 212.766 mg g. The dye removal efficiency achieved for industrial and traditional fruit juice samples (91.75% and 93.24%), respectively, confirmed the method's performance, feasibility, and efficiency. The dye adsorption efficiency showed no significant decrease after five recycling, indicating that the sorbent has suitable stability in practical applications. variousThe synthesized nanoparticles can be suggested as an efficient sorbent to remove the sunset yellow dye from food products.

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