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  • Snake bites are a severe problem in the countryside of Brazil and are usually attributed to snakes of the genera Bothrops, Crotalus, and Lachesis. Snake venom can release ectoenzymes and nucleotidases that modulate the purinergic system. In addition to serum therapy against snake poisoning, medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities, such as Tabebuia aurea, is empirically applied in accidents that occur in difficult-to-access areas. This study aimed was to verify the presence and activity of nucleotidases in the crude venom of Bothrops mattogrossensis (BmtV) in vitro and characterize the modulation of purinergic components, myeloid differentiation, and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers by BmtV in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, our study assessed the inhibitory activities of specioside, an iridoid isolated from Tabebuia aurea, against the effects of BmtV. Proteomic analysis of venom content and nucleotidase activity confirm the presence of ectonucleotidase-like enzymes in BmtV. In in vivo experiments, BmtV altered purinergic component expression (P2X7 receptor, CD39 and CD73), increased neutrophil numbers in peripheral blood, and elevated oxidative stress/inflammatory parameters such as lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase activity. BmtV also decreased viability and increased spreading index and phagocytic activity on macrophages. Specioside inhibited nucleotidase activity, restored neutrophil numbers, and mediate the oxidative/inflammatory effects produced by BmtV. We highlight the effects produced by BmtV in purinergic system components, myeloid differentiation, and inflammatory/oxidative stress parameters, while specioside reduced the main BmtV-dependent effects.

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  • Atrazine is an herbicide with a high soil leaching capacity, contaminating subsurface water sources. Once the water table is contaminated, riparian species can be exposed to atrazine. In this way, understanding the impacts of this exposure must be evaluated for planning strategies that minimize the effects of this herbicide on native forest species. We aimed to evaluate forest species' sensitivity and antioxidant response to exposure to subsurface waters contaminated with atrazine, as well the dissipation this herbicide. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design, with three replications and one plant per experimental unit. The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 10 factorial. The first factor corresponded to the presence or absence (control) of the atrazine in the subsurface water. The second factor comprised 10 forest species: Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Bauhinia cheilantha, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Hymenaea courbaril, Libidibia ferrea, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora, Myracrodruon urundeuva, and Tabebuia aurea. The forest species studied showed different sensitivity levels to atrazine in subsurface water. A. cearensis and B. cheilantha species do not have efficient antioxidant systems to prevent severe oxidative damage. The species A. macrocarpa, E. contortisiliquum, L. ferrea, and M. caesalpiniifolia are moderately affected by atrazine. H. courbaril, M. urundeuva, and T. aurea showed greater tolerance to atrazine due to the action of the antioxidant system of these species, avoiding membrane degradation events linked to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the forest species, H. courbaril has the most significant remedial potential due to its greater tolerance and reduced atrazine concentrations in the soil.

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  • Topolin cytokinins have emerged as valuable tools in micropropagation. This study investigates the metabolism of meta-topolin riboside (mTR) in three distinct tree species: and (), and (). Employing labeled N mTR, we unraveled the complex mechanisms underlying cytokinin homeostasis, identifying N9-glucosylation as the principal deactivation pathway. Our findings demonstrate a capacity in and to reposition the hydroxyl group on the cytokinin molecule, a previously unexplored metabolic pathway. Notably, this study reveals remarkable interfamilial and interspecies differences in mTR metabolism, challenging established perspectives on the role of callus tissue in cytokinin storage. These insights not only illuminate the metabolic intricacies of mTR, a cytokinin with interesting applications in plant tissue culture, but also enhances our understanding of cytokinin dynamics in plant systems, thereby enriching the scientific discourse on plant physiology and cytokinin biology.

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  • Tabebuia impetiginosa (Bignoniaceae) was traditionally used for memory enhancement and central nervous system (CNS) stimulation.

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  • Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan that is highly prevalent worldwide. Although the infection is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, it severely affects immunocompromised individuals, causing conditions such as encephalitis, myocarditis, or pneumonitis. The limited therapeutic efficacy of drugs currently used to treat toxoplasmosis has prompted the search for new therapeutic alternatives. The aim of this study was to determine the anti- activity of extracts obtained from two species of the genus . Twenty-six extracts, 12 obtained from and 14 from , were evaluated by a colorimetric technique using the RH strain of that expresses β-galactosidase. Additionally, the activity of the promising extracts and their active compounds was evaluated by flow cytometry. β-amyrin was isolated from the chloroform extract obtained from the leaves of and displayed important anti- activity. The results show that natural products are an important source of new molecules with considerable biological and/or pharmacological activity.

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  • , popularly known as "ipê-roxo", is used in folk medicine to treat skin inflammations, infections, stomach diseases, and cancer. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from the esterification reaction of fatty acids (FA) found in the hexane extract (HE) of seeds of were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the HE and FAMEs were evaluated. Methyl palmitate, methyl linoleate, methyl oleate, and methyl stearate were the major FAMEs obtained from the HE. The samples, especially the HE, exhibited a significant antioxidant potential analyzed by ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay. In the larvae bioassay, the HE showed no cytotoxic effects, but the FAMEs exhibited a high toxicity. This study reported, for the first time, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the HE and FAMEs obtained from seeds.

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  • Schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907, is a severe and widely distributed parasitic disease, affecting about 200 million people worldwide. The disease is recognized by elevated mortality rates, especially among those living in areas of poor sanitation. Currently, the chemotherapeutic treatment is solely based on using the praziquantel drug. Therefore, there is a need for the discovery of new medicines for the treatment of this parasitosis. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the schistosomicidal activity of ethanolic crude extracts from the branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits of Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart ex DC.) Masttos and characterize its metabolic profile by UPLC-ESI-QTOF analysis. Evaluation of plant extract on S. mansoni was carried out in adult worms in vitro, in which the mortality rate was quantified, and the damages in the tegument of the worms were monitored. All extracts induced changes in the viability of adult males of S. mansoni, causing the death of the parasites, which was directly dependent of the concentration.

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  • In semi-arid regions, is necessary to explore strategies to mitigate abiotic stresses such as water deficit and salinity. This study aimed to evaluate the stress tolerance capacity of three species subjected to different water regimes and salinity levels, based on dry matter production and water use efficiency (WUE). The species , , and were evaluated in combination with different water regimes (50%, 75%, and 100% of reference evapotranspiration - ET) and salinity levels (0.18, 1.50, and 1.90 dS m). The results show that biomass accumulation increased at 50% and 75% ET, while the WUE decreased at 100% ET. The salinity level (1.90 dS m) caused reductions in leaf dry biomass (LDB), total dry biomass (TDB), LDB/TDB ratio, and WUE. The negative effects of high salinity on plant height were greater with the application of 75% ET. The highest WUE was obtained at 50% ET for and , while obtained the highest WUE at 75% ET. exhibited the highest biomass accumulation (2.58 g) and WUE (0.21 g L). Overall, the species can tolerate drought and salinity conditions, being sensitive to high salinity concentrations during their initial growth.

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  • This study focused on modeling the removal of one of the widely used agricultural herbicides known as 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) using polypyrrole-coated FeO nanoparticles (FeO@PPy). The FeO@PPy nanocomposite was synthesized by surface-coating the Tabebuia aurea leaf extract synthesized FeO nanoparticles with polypyrrole. After characterization, the adsorptive potential of the nanocomposite for removing 2,4-D from aqueous solution was examined. Central composite design (CCD) was employed for optimizing the adsorption, revealing an adsorption efficiency of 90.65% at a 2,4-D concentration of 12 ppm, a dosage of 3.8 g/L, an agitation speed of 150 rpm, and 196 min. Adsorption dataset fitted satisfactorily to Langmuir isotherm (R: 0.984 & χ2: 0.054) and pseudo-second-order kinetics (R: 0.929 & χ2: 0.013) whereas the exothermic and spontaneous nature were confirmed via the thermodynamic study. The predictive models, including adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN), and response surface methodology (RSM), demonstrated good precision for the prediction of 2,4-D adsorption, with respective R of 0.9719, 0.9604, and 0.9528. Nevertheless, statistical analysis supported ANFIS as the better forecasting tool, while RSM was the least effective. The maximum adsorption capacity of 2,4-D onto the FeO@PPy nanocomposite was 7.29 mg/g, significantly higher than a few reported values. Therefore, the FeO@PPy nanocomposite could serve as a competent adsorbent to remove 2,4-D herbicide from aqueous streams.

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  • Trees in cacao Agroforestry systems (AFS) may present a high potential for cadmium (Cd) phytoextraction, helping to reduce Cd in cacao ( L.) plants grown in contaminated soils. To assess this potential, four forest fine-woody species commonly found in cacao high-productive sites in Colombia (, , , and ) were exposed to contrasting CdCl contamination levels (0, 6, and 12 ppm) on a hydroponic medium. Growth dynamics, tolerance index (TI), and Cd concentration and allocation in leaves, stems, and roots were evaluated for up to 90 days after initial exposure. , , and were classified as moderately tolerant (TI > 0.6), and was considered a sensitive species (TI < 0.35) under 12 ppm Cd contamination. Despite showing a high stem Cd concentration, also showed the lowest relative growth rate. Among the evaluated forest species, exhibited the highest Cd accumulation capacity per plant (2.02 mg plant) but also exhibited a higher Cd allocation to leaves (4%) and a strong decrease in leaf and stem dry mass after 90 days of exposure (~75% and 50% respectively, compared to control treatments). Taking together all the favorable features exhibited by as compared to other CAFS tree species and recognized phytoextractor tree species in the literature, such as Cd hyperaccumulation, high tolerance index, low Cd concentration in leaves, and high Cd allocation to the stem (harvestable as wood), this species is considered to have a high potential for cadmium phytoextraction in cocoa agroforestry systems.

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