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  • Recent advancements in the formulation of solid dosage forms involving active ingredient-cyclodextrin complexes have garnered considerable attention in pharmaceutical research. While previous studies predominantly focused on incorporating these complexes into solid states, issues regarding incomplete inclusion prompted the exploration of novel methods. In this study, we aimed to develop an innovative approach to integrate liquid-state drug-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes into solid dosage forms. Our investigation centered on rivaroxaban, a hydrophobic compound practically insoluble in water, included in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin at a 1:1 M ratio, and maintained in a liquid state. To enhance viscosity, hydroxypropyl-cellulose (2 % w/w) was introduced, and the resulting dispersion was sprayed onto the surface of cellulose pellets (CELLETS®780) using a Caleva Mini Coater. The process parameters were meticulously controlled, with atomization air pressure set at 1.1 atm and a fluidizing airflow maintained at 35-45 m/h. Characterization of the coated cellets, alongside raw materials, was conducted using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. Physicochemical evaluations affirmed the successful incorporation of rivaroxaban into hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, with the final cellets demonstrating excellent flowability, compressibility, and adequate hardness. Quantitative analysis the HPLC-DAD method confirmed a drug loading of 10 mg rivaroxaban/750 mg coated cellets. dissolution studies were performed in two distinct media: 0.022 M sodium acetate buffer pH 4.5 with 0.2 % sodium dodecyl sulfate (mirroring compendial conditions for 10 mg rivaroxaban tablets), and 0.05 M phosphate buffer pH 6.8 without surfactants, compared to reference capsules and conventional tablet formulations. The experimental capsules exhibited similar release profiles to the commercial product, Xarelto® 10 mg, with enhanced dissolution rates observed within the initial 10 min. This research presents a significant advancement in the development of solid dosage forms incorporating liquid-state drug-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes, offering a promising avenue for improving drug delivery and bioavailability.

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  • Oral ulcers present as recurrent and spontaneous lesions, often causing intolerable burning pain that significantly disrupts patients' daily lives and compromises their quality of life. In addressing this clinical challenge, oral dissolving films (ODFs) have emerged as promising pharmaceutical formulations for oral ulcer management due to their rapid onset of action, ease of administration, and portability. In this study, ODFs containing the insoluble drug dexamethasone (Dex) were formulated for the treatment of oral ulcers in rabbits using a solvent casting method with ethanol as the solvent. To optimize the composition of the ODFs, a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) experiment was employed to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC), and plasticizer (glycerol) on key parameters, such as disintegration time, tensile strength, and peel-off efficiency of the films. Subsequently, the film properties of the Dex-loaded ODFs (ODF@Dex) were thoroughly assessed, revealing favorable attributes, including homogeneity, mechanical strength, and solubility. Notably, the use of ethanol as the solvent in the ODF preparation facilitated the homogeneous distribution of insoluble drugs within the film matrix, thereby enhancing their solubility and dissolution rate. Leveraging the potent pharmacological activity of Dex, ODF@Dex was further evaluated for its efficacy in promoting ulcer healing and mitigating the expression of inflammatory factors both in vitro and in vivo. The findings demonstrated that the ODF@Dex exerted significant antiulcer effects by modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thus contributing to ulcer resolution. In conclusion, our study underscores the potential of HPC-based ODFs formulated with ethanol as a solvent as a promising platform for delivering insoluble drugs, offering a viable strategy for the clinical management of oral ulcers.

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  • Cholesteric mesophases based on cellulose ethers, such as ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose, have been studied widely for their remarkable ability to display macroscopic structural color. However, the typical time scales involved in the multiscale self-assembly of cholesteric liquid crystals, from individual nanoscale helical arrangements to discrete microscopic domains, and their dependence on the gel's viscoelastic properties remain underexplored. Here, we establish a quantitative relationship between the kinetics of structural color formation after shear deformation and cholesteric order development at the nano- and microscales. Utilizing rheology in tandem with static and time-resolved reflectivity measurements, we underscore the strong influence of polymer diffusivity and chain elasticity on self-assembly kinetics in cholesteric cellulose ether gels. We show that our phenomenological model can be employed to assess the structure-property relationships of multiple polysaccharide systems, elucidating key design guidelines for the development and processing of structurally colored cholesteric mesophases.

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  • Dye wastewater poses a serious threat to the environment and human health, necessitating sustainable degradation methods. In this study, Na-based Montmorillonite (MMT) was exfoliated using different ionic liquids ([C16MIM][Cl], [C16MIM][BF], [C16MIM][PF]), and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC). The HPC significantly enhanced the dispersion of MMT in the hydrogel. By introducing lauryl methacrylate (LMA), a hydrophobic associative network was constructed in PAM/LMA/HPC/MMT@ILs&Ag NPs hydrogel. This hydrogel demonstrated outstanding mechanical properties, with a stress of 833.21 kPa, strain of 3300 %, and toughness of 14.36 MJ/m. It also exhibited excellent catalytic activity, with a rate constant of 0.83 min for 4-nitrophenol degradation at 28 °C. The effects of temperature and catalyst concentration on the catalytic reaction were systematically investigated. This study presents a simple green synthesis approach for Ag NPs using HPC, achieving superior mechanical performance and stable MMT dispersion in aqueous solutions.

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  • The aim of this study was to fabricate mini-tablets of polyhedrons containing theophylline using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer, and to evaluate the correlation between release kinetics models and their geometric shapes. The filaments containing theophylline, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), and EUDRAGIT RS PO (EU) could be obtained with a consistent thickness through pre-drying before hot melt extrusion (HME). Mini-tablets of polyhedrons ranging from tetrahedron to icosahedron were 3D-printed using the same formulation of the filament, ensuring equal volumes. The release kinetics models derived from dissolution tests of the polyhedrons, along with calculations for various physical parameters (edge, SA: surface area, SA/W: surface area/weight, SA/V: surface area/volume), revealed that the correlation between the Higuchi model and the SA/V was the highest (R = 0.995). It was confirmed that using 3D- printing for the development of personalized or pediatric drug products allows for the adjustment of drug dosage by modifying the size or shape of the drug while maintaining or controlling the same release profile.

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  • A thermo-responsive poly(-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel, exhibiting an interesting phenomenon of an opaque-transparent-opaque transition in the successive processes of heating and cooling, is reported. It is fabricated by means of both the porogenic effect of hydroxypropyl cellulose and the cononsolvency effect of PNIPAM in a mixed solvent of dimethyl sulfoxide and water. After being mildly triggered by body temperature, the hydrogel is used to spontaneously decrypt the quick response code within 4 min and then autonomously encrypts the code again within 10 min at room temperature. The mechanism for the transient transparency of hydrogels during the quenching process has been elucidated.

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  • The improvement in flowability and adhesion of starch powder (SP) is essential for using starch as an excipient for lactose intolerant patients. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the usefulness of hydroxypropylcellulose with molecular weight 80,000 (HPC-80) in the preparation of the starch granules (SG) as a substitute for excipient lactose.

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  • In this study, a structure-induced aptamer targeting small molecules was selected using capillary sieving electrophoresis (CSE). CSE was conducted using a capillary filled with a background solution containing hydroxypropyl cellulose as a sieving matrix to separate the aptamer candidates by changing their structures via complexation. Before aptamer selection, the original random-sequence DNA library was used to create structure-not-preorganized DNA sub-library containing straight-chain-like structures using CSE. Next, a structure-induced aptamer targeting L-tyrosinamide was selected from the prepared sub-library. Six aptamer candidates were selected, one of which showed a binding ability comparable to that of the reported L-tyrosinamide aptamer and selectivity toward the analogs. These results indicated that the proposed method can be applied to select structure-induced aptamers that target small molecules.

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  • The influence of hydroxypropyl cellulose type (HPC-SSL SFP, HPC-SSL), concentration (2 %, 3.5 %, 5 %) and filler (lactose, calcium hydrogen phosphate (DCP)/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)) on twin-screw wet granulation and subsequent tableting was studied. The aim was to identify the formulation of the highest tabletability which still fulfills the requirements of the disintegration. Lactose combined with 5 % binder enabled a higher tabletability and a faster disintegration than DCP/MCC. It was found that tabletability of lactose formulations can be increased by higher binder concentration and higher compression pressure while tabletability of DCP/MCC formulations can be only increased by higher compression pressure. It was observed that batches containing DCP/MCC failed the disintegration test, if the highest binder concentration and the highest compression pressure were used. To ensure a fast disintegration, the compression pressure or at least the binder concentration had to be low. Changing the disintegrant and its localization improved the DCP/MCC formulation, resulting in faster disintegration than lactose tablets. However, it also resulted in a lower tabletability. In this study best tablets were achieved with 3.5 % or 5 % binder and lactose as filler. These tablets presented the highest tabletability but still disintegrated in less than 500 s.

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  • Because hydroxypropyl cellulose (HpC) is a popular polymeric material that forms a liquid crystalline phase in solutions with various kinds of solvents, including water, it is commonly thought that HpC has a typical rod-like structure in solution. In this study, the structures of commercial HpC samples in aqueous solution with average molar substitution numbers (MS) ranging from 3.6 to 3.9 and weight-average molar masses () ranging from 36 to 740 kg mol were investigated in detail. We first used multiple techniques, including standard static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS), neutron and X-ray scattering experiments, and viscometric measurements, to obtain clear evidence of rod-like structures quantitatively. The dependence of excess scattering intensities for HpC samples under dilute conditions on the magnitude of the scattering vector over a wide range from 8.9 × 10 to 3.0 × 10 nm was reasonably described by the form factor of rod particles with length () and diameter (). Although the determined value was close to the contour length () calculated from the values in the lower range, became obviously less than with increasing . The radius of gyration () determined via SLS measurements was proportional to by a factor of approximately 3.5 ∼ √12 over the range examined. These observations revealed that the conformation of HpC molecules changes from an elongated single chain to a certain folded structure, maintaining the shape of the rod-shaped particles. Moreover, the dependencies of the intrinsic viscosities and translational diffusion coefficients of the HpC samples resulting from DLS measurements were reasonably described with a theoretical rod-like particle model, assuming that and are identical to those resulting from the scattering behaviors.

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