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  • Despite advancements in policies governing psychedelic substances globally, our understanding of real-world psychedelic use and its variations across international jurisdictions remains limited. We implemented the Global Psychedelic Survey (GPS) to capture information about psychedelic consumer characteristics, access, and usage patterns around the world.

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  • Ibogaine is an organic indole alkaloid that is used in alternative medicine to combat addiction. Numerous cases of life-threatening complications and sudden deaths associated with ibogaine use have been reported, and it has been hypothesized that the adverse effects are related to ibogaine's tendency to induce cardiac arrhythmias. Considering that the bioavailability of ibogaine and its primary metabolite noribogaine is two to three times higher in female rats than in male rats, we here investigated the effect of a single oral dose (1 or 20 mg/kg) of ibogaine on cardiac histopathology and oxidative/antioxidant balance. Our results show that ibogaine induced dose-dependent cardiotoxic necrosis 6 and 24 h after treatment and that this necrosis was not a consequence of inflammation. In addition, no consistent dose- and time-dependent changes in antioxidant defense or indicators of oxidative damage were observed. The results of this study may contribute to a better understanding of ibogaine-induced cardiotoxicity, which is one of the main side effects of ibogaine use in humans and is often fatal. Nevertheless, based on this experiment, it is not possible to draw a definitive conclusion regarding the role of redox processes or oxidative stress in the occurrence of cardiotoxic necrosis after ibogaine administration.

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  • The effect of cannabis edibles on driving and blood THC.

    Cannabis has been shown to impact driving due to changes produced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis. Current legal thresholds for blood THC while driving are based predominantly on evidence utilizing smoked cannabis. It is known that levels of THC in blood are lower after eating cannabis as compared to smoking yet the impact of edibles on driving and associated blood THC has never been studied.

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  • The global use of certain classical psychedelics has increased in recent years, but little is known about their spectrum of toxicity within Australia. We aim to describe calls to New South Wales Poisons Information Centre relating to exposures to classical psychedelics including lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, ayahuasca, mescaline and ibogaine.

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  • The pace of psychedelic treatments continues to increase. Regulation and coherent clinical guidance have not been established. A philosophical divide limits effective resolution of a practice delivery quandary: is this primarily a pharmacological or psychotherapeutic intervention?

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  • Neuromodulation for Cannabis Use: A Scoping Review.

    This scoping review explores the use of neuromodulation techniques in individuals with cannabis use. Our goal was to determine whether cannabis use alters cortical excitation and inhibition in the context of neuromodulation and to determine whether neuromodulation affects craving and cannabis use patterns. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, OVID Medline, and PsycINFO from inception to 20 December 2022. Our review identified ten relevant studies, eight of which used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), while two employed Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Findings from TMS studies suggest that cannabis users exhibit altered cortical inhibition, with decreased short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) compared to non-users. Single sessions of rTMS did not have any impact on cannabis craving. By contrast, two studies found that multiple sessions of rTMS reduced cannabis use, but these changes did not meet the threshold for statistical significance and both studies were limited by small sample sizes. The two included tDCS studies found contradictory results, with one showing reduced cannabis craving with active treatment and another showing no effect of active treatment on craving compared to sham. Future studies should further explore the effects of multiple treatment sessions and different neuromodulation modalities.

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  • [Not Available].

  • Iboga alkaloids, also known as coronaridine congeners, have shown promise in the treatment of alcohol and opioid use disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of catharanthine and 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) on dopamine (DA) transmission and cholinergic interneurons in the mesolimbic DA system, nicotine-induced locomotor activity, and nicotine-taking behavior. Utilizing fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in the nucleus accumbens core of male mice, we found that catharanthine or 18-MC differentially inhibited evoked DA release. Catharanthine inhibition of evoked DA release was significantly reduced by both α4 and α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) antagonists. Additionally, catharanthine substantially increased DA release more than vehicle during high-frequency stimulation, although less potently than an α4 nAChR antagonist, which confirms previous work with nAChR antagonists. Interestingly, while catharanthine slowed DA reuptake measured via FSCV , it also increased extracellular DA in striatal dialysate from anesthetized mice in a dose-dependent manner. Superfusion of catharanthine or 18-MC inhibited the firing rate of striatal cholinergic interneurons in a concentration dependent manner, which are known to potently modulate presynaptic DA release. Catharanthine or 18-MC suppressed acetylcholine currents in oocytes expressing recombinant rat α6/α3β2β3 or α6/α3β4 nAChRs. In behavioral experiments using male Sprague-Dawley rats, systemic administration of catharanthine or 18-MC blocked nicotine enhancement of locomotor activity. Importantly, catharanthine attenuated nicotine self-administration in a dose-dependent manner while having no effect on food reinforcement. Lastly, administration of catharanthine and nicotine together greatly increased head twitch responses, indicating a potential synergistic hallucinogenic effect. These findings demonstrate that catharanthine and 18-MC have similar, but not identical effects on striatal DA dynamics, striatal cholinergic interneuron activity and nicotine psychomotor effects.

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  • Silene undulata is historically used for inducing vivid and prophetic lucid dreams, but limited information exists on its phytochemical composition and potential pharmacological properties.

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  • Previous research has indicated that anticipating positive effects from cannabis use may be linked with increased frequency of cannabis consumption, yet these expectancies remain poorly understood in adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Thus, our study aimed to investigate the expectancies of the effects of cannabis use in 26 frequently using adults with SAD (age: 27.9 ± 7.3 years; 54% female) and 26 (age: 27.4 ± 6.7 years; 50% female) without. While no between-group differences were observed, both groups reported expecting tension reduction and relaxation (F = 0.001; = 0.974), cravings, and physical effects (F = 1.10; = 0.300), but denied global negative effects (F = 0.11; = 0.744). The trajectory of cannabis use perceptions (further investigated in 12/26 participants/group) also showed no between-group differences. Before the initial use, positive perceptions may have led to initial and continuous cannabis consumption, while the symptoms of cannabis use disorder may have contributed to repeated use. Our data indicate that, regardless of psychiatric history, frequent cannabis-using adults are more likely to report positive expectancies, which are often associated with increased patterns of cannabis consumption. Psychoeducational programs and openly discussing the risks of cannabis may be beneficial in preventing and/or reducing cannabis use in people with SAD.

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