Exploring the World of Natural Sciences

Your Source for Nature-based Education and Exploration

A Hub for Exploring the Wonders of Nature

Natural Science Hub Search function

Type your keywords and we will find the results


  • Bronchiectasis.

    Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, a condition that remains relatively underrecognized, has garnered increasing research focus in recent years. This scientific interest has catalyzed advancements in diagnostic methodologies, enabling comprehensive clinical and molecular profiling. Such progress facilitates the development of personalized treatment strategies, marking a significant step toward precision medicine for these patients. Bronchiectasis poses significant diagnostic challenges in both clinical settings and research studies. While computed tomography (CT) remains the gold standard for diagnosis, novel alternatives are emerging. These include artificial intelligence-powered algorithms, ultra-low dose chest CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, all of which are becoming recognized as feasible diagnostic tools. The precision medicine paradigm calls for refined characterization of bronchiectasis patients by analyzing their inflammatory and molecular profiles. Research into the underlying mechanisms of inflammation and the evaluation of biomarkers such as neutrophil elastase, mucins, and antimicrobial peptides have led to the identification of distinct patient endotypes. These endotypes present variable clinical outcomes, necessitating tailored therapeutic interventions. Among these, eosinophilic bronchiectasis is notable for its prevalence and specific prognostic factors, calling for careful consideration of treatable traits. A deeper understanding of the microbiome's influence on the pathogenesis and progression of bronchiectasis has inspired a holistic approach, which considers the multibiome as an interconnected microbial network rather than treating pathogens as solitary entities. Interactome analysis therefore becomes a vital tool for pinpointing alterations during both stable phases and exacerbations. This array of innovative approaches has revolutionized the personalization of treatments, incorporating therapies such as inhaled mannitol or ARINA-1, brensocatib for anti-inflammatory purposes, and inhaled corticosteroids specifically for patients with eosinophilic bronchiectasis.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased intestinal permeability (IP). The Brazil nut (BN) (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) appears to be a promising dietary intervention to control inflammation by enhancing antioxidant defenses.

    Read More on PubMed
  • In contrast to Neltuma species, S. tamarugo exhibited higher stress tolerance, maintaining photosynthetic performance through enhanced gene expression and metabolites. Differentially accumulated metabolites include chlorophyll and carotenoids and accumulation of non-nitrogen osmoprotectants. Plant species have developed different adaptive strategies to live under extreme environmental conditions. Hypothetically, extremophyte species present a unique configuration of physiological functions that prioritize stress-tolerance mechanisms while carefully managing resource allocation for photosynthesis. This could be particularly challenging under a multi-stress environment, where the synthesis of multiple and sequential molecular mechanisms is induced. We explored this hypothesis in three phylogenetically related woody species co-occurring in the Atacama Desert, Strombocarpa tamarugo, Neltuma alba, and Neltuma chilensis, by analyzing their leaf dehydration and freezing tolerance and by characterizing their photosynthetic performance under natural growth conditions. Besides, the transcriptomic profiling, biochemical analyses of leaf pigments, and metabolite analysis by untargeted metabolomics were conducted to study gene expression and metabolomic landscape within this challenging multi-stress environment. S. tamarugo showed a higher photosynthetic capacity and leaf stress tolerance than the other species. In this species, a multifactorial response was observed, which involves high photochemical activity associated with a higher content of chlorophylls and β-carotene. The oxidative damage of the photosynthetic apparatus is probably attenuated by the synthesis of complex antioxidant molecules in the three species, but S. tamarugo showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses among the species showed the differential expression of genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways of key stress-related metabolites. Moreover, the synthesis of non-nitrogen osmoprotectant molecules, such as ciceritol and mannitol in S. tamarugo, would allow the nitrogen allocation to support its high photosynthetic capacity without compromising leaf dehydration tolerance and freezing stress avoidance.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Plant synaptotagmins structurally resemble animal synaptotagmins and extended-synaptotagmins. Animal synaptotagmins are well-characterized calcium sensors in membrane trafficking, and extended-synaptotagmins mediate lipid transfer at the endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites. Here, we characterize , which belongs to the six-member family in Arabidopsis. Fluorometric GUS assay showed that the promoter was strongest in roots and the least active in rosettes and cauline leaves, which was confirmed by qPCR. In seedlings, promoter activity was influenced by several factors, such as plant growth regulators, mannitol, sucrose, polyethylene glycol and cold. GUS histochemistry revealed promoter activity in the phloem of all organs and even almost exclusively in sieve element precursors and differentiating sieve elements. Accordingly, the SYT-GFP fusion protein also accumulated in these cells with maximal abundance in sieve element precursors. The protein formed a network in the cytoplasm, but during sieve tube differentiation, it deposited at the cell periphery and disappeared from mature tubes. Using photoconvertible fluorescence technology, we showed that a high abundance of SYT4 protein in meristematic protophloem cells was due to its extensive synthesis. SYT4 protein synthesis was interrupted in differentiating sieve elements, but protein degradation was also reduced. In addition to phloem, the fusion protein was detected in shoot and root stem cell niche as early as the late heart stage of the embryo. We isolated and molecularly and biologically characterized five T-DNA insertion alleles and subjected them to phenotype analysis. The allele with the C2B domain interrupted by an T-DNA insertion exhibits increased sensitivity to factors such as auxins, osmotics, salicylic acid, sodium chloride, and the absence of sucrose in the root growth test.

    Read More on PubMed
  • The rise of gene therapy has solved many diseases that cannot be effectively treated by conventional methods. Gene vectors is very important to protect and deliver the therapeutic genes to the target site. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified with mannitol could enhance the gene transfection efficiency reported by our group previously. In order to further control and improve the effective gene release to action site, disulfide bonds were introduced into mannitol-modified PEI to construct new non-viral gene vectors PeiSM. The degrees of mannitol linking with disulfide bonds were screened. Among them, moderate mannitol-modified polyethyleneimine with disulfide bonds (M-PeiSM) showed the best transfection efficiency, and significantly enhanced long-term systemic transgene expression for 72 hours in vivo even at a single dose administration, and could promote caveolae-mediated uptake through up-regulating the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and increase the loaded gene release from the nanocomplexes in high GSH intracellular environment. This functionalized gene delivery system can be used as an potential and safe non-viral nanovector for further gene therapy.

    Read More on PubMed
  • To explore the mechanism of Qigui-Yishen decoction in delaying renal fibrosis in mice by regulating thrombin regulatory protein (Thrombomodulin, TM) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) based on network pharmacology.

    Read More on PubMed
  • This study examined the efficacy of del Nido cardioplegia compared with traditional blood cardioplegia in adult cardiac surgery for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting by evaluating the early postoperative outcomes.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Sugar substitutes, which generally refer to a class of food additives, mostly have vibration frequencies within the terahertz (THz) band. Therefore, THz technology can be used to analyze their molecular properties. To understand the characteristics of sugar substitutes, this study selected mannitol and erythritol as representatives. Firstly, PXRD and Raman techniques were used to determine the crystal structure and purity of mannitol and erythritol. Then, the THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system was employed to measure the spectral properties of the two sugar substitutes. Additionally, density functional theory (DFT) was utilized to simulate the crystal configurations of mannitol and erythritol. The experimental results showed good agreement with the simulation results. Finally, microfluidic chip technology was used to measure the THz spectroscopic properties of the two sugar substitutes in solution. A comparison was made between their solid state and aqueous solution state, revealing a strong correlation between the THz spectra of the two sugar substitutes in both states. Additionally, it was found that the THz spectrum of a substance in solution is related to its concentration. This study provides a reference for the analysis of sugar substitutes.

    Read More on PubMed
  • The presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria on veterinary clinic surfaces may be problematic. In this study, we collected swab samples (Fisherbrand, double transport swabs with Stuart's liquid medium) and water samples from five veterinary rehabilitation clinics. Swabs and water samples were transported to a microbiology lab for processing. At the lab, swabs were used to inoculate Hardy's Cdiff Banana Broth (for [Cdiff]) and five different types of bacterial growth media, including Hardy CHROM MRSA agar (methicillin-resistant [MRSA] and [SIM]), mannitol salt agar ( [SA]), eosin methylene blue agar (enterics [ENT]), isolation agar ( spp. [PS]), and tryptic soy agar [TSA] (non-specific). The most prominent presumptive species cultured was Cdiff (on nearly 55% of swabs). spp. and enteric bacteria were encountered on nearly 35% of swabs, with MRSA and SIM on just over 10% of swabs. The most contaminated sample site was harnesses/life jackets used with the underwater treadmill (33% of swabs). The underwater treadmill water had total bacterial counts from 1,600 to 2,800 cfu/mL. Of all presumptive bacterial species detected, SIM tends to be more pathogenic for dogs. Targeted cleaning/disinfecting in these clinics could help reduce risks for both animals and caregivers utilizing these clinics.

    Read More on PubMed
  • Riboflavin overproduction by Corynebacterium glutamicum was achieved by screening synthetic operons, enabling fine-tuned expression of the riboflavin biosynthetic genes ribGCAH. The synthetic operons were designed by means of predicted translational initiation rates of each open reading frame, with the best-performing selection enabling riboflavin overproduction without negatively affecting cell growth. Overexpression of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (fbp) and 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate aminotransferase (purF) encoding genes was then done to redirect the metabolic flux towards the riboflavin precursors. The resulting strain produced 8.3 g/L of riboflavin in glucose-based fed-batch fermentations, which is the highest reported riboflavin titer with C. glutamicum. Further genetic engineering enabled both xylose and mannitol utilization by C. glutamicum, and we demonstrated riboflavin overproduction with the xylose-rich feedstocks rice husk hydrolysate and spent sulfite liquor, and the mannitol-rich feedstock brown seaweed hydrolysate. Remarkably, rice husk hydrolysate provided 30% higher riboflavin yields compared to glucose in the bioreactors.&#xD.

    Read More on PubMed

Proudly Supported By:

Grateful for our sponsors' invaluable support!