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  • Total suspended solids (TSS) are a major contributor of anthropogenic impacts to aquatic systems. TSS exposure have been shown to affect the function of gills, but the mode of action is unclear. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is emerging as an excellent model for mechanistic toxicology, and as there are no baseline studies on TSS effects in zebrafish gills, we tested the hypothesis that environmental concentrations of TSS damages gill structure and function in this species. Adult zebrafish were exposed to either 0, 10, 100, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/L TSS for 4 days to assess the gill morphology. The minimal concentration that affected the gill structure was further tested for the distribution of key ion transporters, including Na/K- ATPase (NKA) and vacuolar-type H-ATPase (VHA), using confocal microscopy. Our results reveal that TSS concentration as low as 100 mg/L alters the morphology of gills, including greater filament thickness, lamellae thickness, and epithelial lifting. This was also associated with a reduction in NKA immunoreactive (IR) cell count and intensity in the 100 mg/L TSS group, while there was neither a change in the VHA-IR cell count or expression nor the transcript abundance of atp6v1a and atp1a1a4 in the gills. Markers of stress response in these animals, including levels of cortisol, glucose, lactate, and glycogen were not altered after 4 days of TSS exposure. Overall, environmentally relevant concentrations of TSS can damage the gill structure and function in zebrafish and has the potential to enhance the toxicity of contaminants acting via the gills.

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  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a persistent inflammatory condition affecting the bowels. Gegen Qinlian decoction (GQD) has been widely used in the therapy of gastrointestinal diseases. We investigated the protective impacts and mechanism of GQD against UC. To establish the UC model, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was utilized. The disease activity index (DAI), colon length and colonic pathology were assessed to examine the impacts of GQD on UC. The level of pan-lysine lactylation (Pan kla) and specific sites were detected using western blot. Then, the inflammatory factors and the oxidative stress parameters were measured via the corresponding kits, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that GQD suppressed the lactate generation and LDH activity. The western blot revealed that GQD inhibited the expression of Pan kla and specific sites of H3K18la, H3K23la, H4K8la, and H4K12la. Furthermore, the suppressive effects on inflammation and oxidative stress caused by GQD were counteracted upon the exogenous lactate. GQD suppressed the phenotypic differentiation of M1 macrophages by reducing the expression of M1 markers, which was also reversed by exogenous lactate. In conclusion, GQD effectively suppressed UC progression through histone lactylation. Our results broadened the theoretical basis for the clinical use of GQD.

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  • This study aimed to investigate the ability of highly trained athletes to consistently perform at their highest level during a simulated three-day 400 m race and to examine the impact of an alkaline diet associated with chronic consumption of bicarbonate-rich water or placebo on their blood metabolic responses before and after the three races. Twenty-two highly trained athletes, divided into two groups-one with an alkalizing diet and placebo water (PLA) and the other with an alkalizing diet and bicarbonate-rich water (BIC)-performed a 400 m race for three consecutive days. Performance metrics, urine and blood samples assessing acid-base balance, and indirect markers of neuro-muscular fatigue were measured before and after each 400 m race. The evolution of the Potential Renal Acid Load (PRAL) index and urinary pH highlights the combination of an alkalizing diet and bicarbonate-rich hydration, modifying the acid-base state ( < 0.05). Athletes in the PLA group replicated the same level of performance during three consecutive daily races without an increase in fatigue-associated markers. Athletes experienced similar levels of metabolic perturbations during the three 400 m races, with improved lactate clearance 20 min after the third race compared to the first two ( < 0.05). This optimization of the buffering capacity through ecological alkaline nutrition and hydration allowed athletes in the BIC group to improve their performance during the third 400 m race ( < 0.01). This study highlights athletes' ability to replicate high-level performances over three consecutive days with the same extreme level of metabolic disturbances, and an alkaline diet combined with bicarbonate-rich water consumption appears to enhance performance in a 400 m race.

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  • In spite of its essential role in culture media, the precise influence of lactate on early mouse embryonic development remains elusive. Previous studies have implicated lactate accumulation in medium affecting histone acetylation. Recent research has underscored lactate-derived histone lactylation as a novel epigenetic modification in diverse cellular processes and diseases. Our investigation demonstrated that the absence of sodium lactate in the medium resulted in a pronounced 2-cell arrest at the late G2 phase in embryos. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the absence of sodium lactate significantly impaired the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), particularly in zygotic gene activation (ZGA). Investigations were conducted employing Cut&Tag assays targeting the well-studied histone acetylation and lactylation sites, H3K18la and H3K27ac, respectively. The findings revealed a noticeable reduction in H3K18la modification under lactate deficiency, and this alteration showed a significant correlation with changes in gene expression. In contrast, H3K27ac exhibited minimal correlation. These results suggest that lactate may preferentially influence early embryonic development through H3K18la rather than H3K27ac modifications.

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  • There is currently no consensus regarding the use of intravenous fluid therapy in feline patients post-blood donation in veterinary medicine. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether blood donation can be performed safely without post-donation intravenous fluid therapy. The secondary aim was to report owner-noted post-donation changes.

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  • Gaming has become an integrated part of life for children and adults worldwide. Previous studies on the impact of gaming on biochemical parameters have primarily addressed the acute effects of gaming. The literature is limited, and the study designs are very diverse. The parameters that have been investigated most thoroughly are blood glucose and cortisol.

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  • To assess the impact of endurance training on skeletal muscle release of H and K.

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  • To evaluate differences in point-of-care (POC) variables obtained from arterial and jugular venous blood in dogs undergoing manual basic life support (BLS) and report changes over time.

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  • Organic acid metabolites exhibit acidic properties. These metabolites serve as intermediates in major carbon metabolic pathways and are involved in several biochemical pathways, including the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glycolysis. They also regulate cellular activity and play crucial roles in epigenetics, tumorigenesis, and cellular signal transduction. Knowledge of the binding proteins of organic acid metabolites is crucial for understanding their biological functions. However, identifying the binding proteins of these metabolites has long been a challenging task owing to the transient and weak nature of their interactions. Moreover, traditional methods are unsuitable for the structural modification of the ligands of organic acid metabolites because these metabolites have simple and similar structures. Even minor structural modifications can significantly affect protein interactions. Thermal proteome profiling (TPP) provides a promising avenue for identifying binding proteins without the need for structural modifications. This approach has been successfully applied to the identification of the binding proteins of several metabolites. In this study, we investigated the binding proteins of two TCA cycle intermediates, i.e., succinate and fumarate, and lactate, an end-product of glycolysis, using the matrix thermal shift assay (mTSA) technique. This technique involves combining single-temperature (52 ℃) TPP and dose-response curve analysis to identify ligand-binding proteins with high levels of confidence and determine the binding affinity between ligands and proteins. To this end, HeLa cells were lysed, followed by protein desalting to remove endogenous metabolites from the cell lysates. The desalted cell lysates were treated with fumarate or succinate at final concentrations of 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, and 2 mmol/L in the experimental groups or 2 mmol/L sodium chloride in the control group. Considering that the cellular concentration of lactate can be as high as 2-30 mmol/L, we then applied lactate at final concentrations of 0.2, 1, 5, 10, and 25 mmol/L in the experimental groups or 25 mmol/L sodium chloride in the control group. Using high-sensitivity mass spectrometry coupled with data-independent acquisition (DIA) quantification, we quantified 5870, 5744, and 5816 proteins in succinate, fumarate, and lactate mTSA experiments, respectively. By setting stringent cut-off values (i.e., significance of changes in protein thermal stability (-value)<0.001 and quality of the dose-response curve fitting (square of Pearson's correlation coefficient, )>0.95), multiple binding proteins for these organic acid metabolites from background proteins were confidently determined. Several known binding proteins were identified, notably fumarate hydratase (FH) as a binding protein for fumarate, and -ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (FTO) as a binding protein for both fumarate and succinate. Additionally, the affinity data for the interactions between these metabolites and their binding proteins were obtained, which closely matched those reported in the literature. Interestingly, ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), which is involved in amino acid biosynthesis, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST), which acts as an antioxidant in cells, were identified as lactate-binding proteins. Subsequently, an orthogonal assay technique developed in our laboratory, the solvent-induced precipitation (SIP) technique, was used to validate the mTSA results. SIP identified OAT as the top target candidate, validating the mTSA-based finding that OAT is a novel lactate-binding protein. Although MPST was not identified as a lactate-binding protein by SIP, statistical analysis of MPST in the mTSA experiments with 10 or 25 mmol/L lactate revealed that MPST is a lactate-binding protein with a high level of confidence. Peptide-level empirical Bayes -tests combined with Fisher's exact test also supported the conclusion that MPST is a lactate-binding protein. Lactate is structurally similar to pyruvate, the known binding protein of MPST. Therefore, assuming that lactate could potentially occupy the binding site of pyruvate on MPST. Overall, the novel binding proteins identified for lactate suggest their potential involvement in amino acid synthesis and redox balance regulation.

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  • Efficient dewatering of sewage sludge is an energy- and carbon-saving procedure for sludge treatment in wastewater treatment facilities. The ultrasound-coupled divalent iron ion activated persulfate process can effectively promote sludge dewatering and improve organic substance content. Under the action of ultrasound (US 50 w/L), divalent iron ions (Fe) 200 mg/g (TS), and persulfate (PDS) 200 mg/g (TS) for 60 min, the capillary suction time (CST) was reduced by 79.74%, and the moisture content of the dewatered sludge cake reached 56.51 wt%. The organic carbon content of treated sludge was also four times higher than the original sludge and types were richer in short-chain volatile species in US/Fe/PDS. Moreover, the correlation analysis found that the relationship of between CST and SV, Zeta and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were positive correlation, and the relationship of SCOD and TC were positively correlated with the PN (SB-EPS). Mechanistic studies showed that the US/Fe/PDS system could produce oxygen activators by US coupling Fe to strengthen the effect of activated PDS strongly, while the sulfate radicals (SO·) radical was a dominant role. The cracking mechanism is divided into two pathways effectively degraded the macromolecule EPS into a small-molecule acid and further reduced the water-holding interfacial affinity as follow: (1) the radical path dominated by hydroxyl radicals (·OH), SO·, and superoxide radical (O·); (2) the non-radicals dominated by monoclinic oxygen (O). Afterwards, the electrostatic force and interfacial free energy were reduced, resulting in enhanced self-flocculation and mobility to enhanced dewaterability. These findings demonstrated the US/Fe/PDS system had significant advantages in sludge cracking and provided theoretical support for its practical application.

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