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  • is an important economic tree species, but pine wilt disease (PWD) seriously threatens the survival of pine trees. PWD caused by is a major quarantine disease worldwide that causes significant economic losses. However, more information about its molecular pathogenesis is needed, resulting in a lack of effective prevention and treatment measures. In recent years, effectors have become a hot topic in exploring the molecular pathogenic mechanism of pathogens. Here, we identified a specific effector, BxNMP1, from . In situ hybridization experiments revealed that was specifically expressed in dorsal gland cells and intestinal cells, and RT-qPCR experiments revealed that was upregulated in the early stage of infection. The sequence of was different in the avirulent strain, and when -silenced was inoculated into seedlings, the disease severity significantly decreased. We demonstrated that BxNMP1 interacted with the thaumatin-like protein PtTLP-L2 in . Additionally, we found that the β-1,3-glucanase PtGLU interacted with PtTLP-L2. Therefore, we hypothesized that BxNMP1 might indirectly interact with PtGLU through PtTLP-L2 as an intermediate mediator. Both targets can respond to infection, and PtTLP-L2 can enhance the resistance of pine trees. Moreover, we detected increased salicylic acid contents in seedlings inoculated with when was silenced or when the PtTLP-L2 recombinant protein was added. In summary, we identified a key virulence effector of PWNs, BxNMP1. It positively regulates the pathogenicity of and interacts directly with PtTLP-L2 and indirectly with PtGLU. It also inhibits the expression of two targets and the host salicylic acid pathway. This study provides theoretical guidance and a practical basis for controlling PWD and breeding for disease resistance.

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  • With increased access and decriminalization of cannabis use, cases of IgE-dependent cannabis allergy (CA) and cross-reactivity syndromes have been increasingly reported. However, the exact prevalence of cannabis allergy and associated cross-reactive food syndromes (CAFS) remains unknown and is likely to be underestimated due to a lack of awareness and insufficient knowledge of the subject among health care professionals. Therefore, this practical roadmap aims to familiarize the reader with the early recognition and correct management of IgE-dependent cannabis-related allergies. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying these cross-reactivity syndromes and to enable personalized diagnosis and management, special attention is given to the molecular diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies.

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  • Bisphenol A (BPA) and -nitrophenol (PNP) are emerging contaminants of soils due to their wide presence in agricultural and industrial products. Thus, the present study aimed to integrate morpho-physiological, ionic homeostasis, and defense- and antioxidant-related genes in the response of tomato plants to BPA or PNP stress, an area of research that has been scarcely studied. In this work, increasing the levels of BPA and PNP in the soil intensified their drastic effects on the biomass and photosynthetic pigments of tomato plants. Moreover, BPA and PNP induced osmotic stress on tomato plants by reducing soluble sugars and soluble proteins relative to control. The soil contamination with BPA and PNP treatments caused a decline in the levels of macro- and micro-elements in the foliar tissues of tomatoes while simultaneously increasing the contents of non-essential micronutrients. The Fourier transform infrared analysis of the active components in tomato leaves revealed that BPA influenced the presence of certain functional groups, resulting in the absence of some functional groups, while on PNP treatment, there was a shift observed in certain functional groups compared to the control. At the molecular level, BPA and PNP induced an increase in the gene expression of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, with the exception of POD gene expression under BPA stress. The expression of the thaumatin-like protein gene increased at the highest level of PNP and a moderate level of BPA without any significant effect of both pollutants on the expression of the tubulin (TUB) gene. The comprehensive analysis of biochemical responses in tomato plants subjected to BPA and PNP stress illustrates valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying tolerance to these pollutants.

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  • Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) in plants are involved in diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, including antifungal activity, low temperature, drought, and high salinity. However, the roles of the genes are rarely reported in early flowering. Here, the gene family was identified in . The 49 genes were classified into 10 clusters, and gene structures, conserved motifs, and expression patterns were analyzed in these genes. Among 49 genes, the transcription level is preferentially high in stems, and GUS staining signals were mainly detected in the phloem tissues of the pro::GUS transgenic poplars. We generated transgenic plants overexpressing the gene, and its overexpression lines showed early flowering phenotypes. However, the expression levels of main flowering regulating genes were not significantly altered in these -overexpressing plants. Our data further showed that overexpression of the gene led to a reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst in , which might advance the development process of transgenic plants. In addition, subcellular localization of -fused green fluorescent protein (GFP) was in peroxisome, as suggested by tobacco leaf transient transformation. Overall, this work provides a comprehensive analysis of the gene family in and an insight into the role of TLPs in woody plants.

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  • The gene family of thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) plays a crucial role in the adaptation of organisms to environmental stresses. In recent years, fungal secreted proteins (SP) with inducing disease resistance activity in plants have emerged as important elicitors in the control of fungal diseases. Identifying SPs with inducing disease resistance activity and studying their mechanisms are crucial for controlling sheath blight. In the present study, 10 proteins containing the thaumatin-like domain were identified in strain AG4-JY of and eight of the 10 proteins had signal peptides. Analysis of the TLP genes of the 10 different anastomosis groups (AGs) showed that the evolutionary relationship of the TLP gene was consistent with that between different AGs of . Furthermore, it was found that RsTLP3, RsTLP9 and RsTLP10 were regarded as secreted proteins for their signaling peptides exhibited secretory activity. Prokaryotic expression and enzyme activity analysis revealed that the three secreted proteins possess glycoside hydrolase activity, suggesting they belong to the TLP family. Additionally, spraying the crude enzyme solution of the three TLP proteins could enhance maize resistance to sheath blight. Further analysis showed that genes associated with the salicylic acid and ethylene pathways were up-regulated following RsTLP3 application. The results indicated that RsTLP3 had a good application prospect in biological control.

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  • Crystallophores are lanthanide complexes that have demonstrated outstanding induction of crystallization for various proteins. This article explores the effect of tailored modifications of the crystallophore first generation and their impact on the nucleating properties and protein crystal structures. Through high-throughput crystallization experiments and dataset analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of these variants, in comparison to the first crystallophore generation G. In particular, the V variant, featuring a propanol pendant arm, demonstrated the ability to produce new crystallization conditions for the proteins tested (hen-egg white lysozyme, proteinase K and thaumatin). Structural analysis performed in the case of hen egg-white lysozyme along with Molecular Dynamics simulations, highlights V's unique behavior, taking advantage of the flexibility of its propanol arm to explore different protein surfaces and form versatile supramolecular interactions.

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  • Insects possess an effective immune system, which has been extensively characterized in several model species, revealing a plethora of conserved genes involved in recognition, signaling, and responses to pathogens and parasites. However, some taxonomic groups, characterized by peculiar trophic niches, such as plant-sap feeders, which are often important pests of crops and forestry ecosystems, have been largely overlooked regarding their immune gene repertoire. Here we annotated the immune genes of soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) for which omics data are publicly available. By using immune genes of aphids and to query the genome of , as well as the transcriptomes of and sp., we highlight the lack of peptidoglycan recognition proteins, galectins, thaumatins, and antimicrobial peptides in Coccidae. This work contributes to expanding our knowledge about the evolutionary trajectories of immune genes and offers a list of promising candidates for developing new control strategies based on the suppression of pests' immunity through RNAi technologies.

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  • The protein instability with haze formation represents one of the main faults occurring in white and rosé wines. Among the various solutions industrially proposed, aspergillopepsin I (AP-I) supplementation coupled with must heating (60-75 °C) has been recently approved by OIV and the European Commission for ensuring protein stability of wines. This study investigates the impact of AP-I either applied independently or in combination with flash pasteurization on the chemical composition of grape must and wines derived from Sauvignon Blanc and Gewürztraminer. The efficacy on protein stability of a complete treatment combining heat (70 °C) and AP-I (HP) was confirmed through heat test and bentonite requirement, although no differences were observed between must heating and HP treatments. However, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of unstable pathogenesis-related proteins revealed that AP-I supplementation reduced chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins compared to the non-enzymed samples, with and without must heating. Amino acid increase was reported only in HP musts, particularly in Sauvignon Blanc. The concentration of yeast-derived aroma compounds in Gewürztraminer wines was increased by must heating; compared to controls, flash pasteurization rose the overall acetate esters content of 85 % and HP of 43 %, mostly due to isoamyl acetate. However, heat treatments -with or without AP-I- reduced terpenes up to 68 %. Despite the different aroma profiles, no differences were observed for any descriptor for both varieties in wine tasting, and only a slight decrease trend was observed for the floral intensity and the typicality descriptors in heated wines.

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  • Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) comprise a complex and evolutionarily conserved protein family that participates in host defense and several developmental processes in plants, fungi, and animals. Importantly, TLPs are plant host defense proteins that belong to pathogenesis-related family 5 (PR-5), and growing evidence has demonstrated that they are involved in resistance to a variety of fungal diseases in many crop plants, particularly legumes. Nonetheless, the roles and underlying mechanisms of the TLP family in legumes remain unclear. The present review summarizes recent advances related to the classification, structure, and host resistance of legume TLPs to biotic and abiotic stresses; analyzes and predicts possible protein-protein interactions; and presents their roles in phytohormone response, root nodule formation, and symbiosis. The characteristics of TLPs provide them with broad prospects for plant breeding and other uses. Searching for legume TLP genetic resources and functional genes, and further research on their precise function mechanisms are necessary.

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  • The interaction between cadmium(Cd) and copper(Cu) during combined pollution can lead to more complex toxic effects on humans and plants.However, there is still a lack of sufficient understanding regarding the types of interactions at the plant molecular level and the response strategies of plants to combined pollution. To assess this, we investigated the phenotypic and transcriptomic patterns of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L) roots in response to individual and combined pollution of Cd and Cu. The results showed that compared to single addition, the translocation factor of heavy metals in roots significantly decreased (p < 0.05) under the combined addition, resulting in higher accumulation of Cd and Cu in the roots. Transcriptomic analysis of pakchoi roots revealed that compared to single pollution, there were 312 and 1926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) specifically regulated in the Cd2Cu20 and Cd2Cu100 combined treatments, respectively. By comparing the expression of these DEGs among different treatments, we found that the combined pollution of Cd and Cu mainly affected the transcriptome of the roots in an antagonistic manner. Enrichment analysis indicated that pakchoi roots upregulated the expression of genes involved in glucosetransferase activity, phospholipid homeostasis, proton transport, and the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids to resist Cd and Cu combined pollution. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified hub genes related to the accumulation of Cd and Cu in the roots, which mainly belonged to the LBD, thaumatin-like protein, ERF, MYB, WRKY, and TCP transcription factor families. This may reflect a transcription factor-driven trade-off strategy between heavy metal accumulation and growth in pakchoi roots. Additionally, compared to single metal pollution, the expression of genes related to Nramp, cation/H antiporters, and some belonging to the ABC transporter family in the pakchoi roots was significantly upregulated under combined pollution. This could lead to increased accumulation of Cd and Cu in the roots. These findings provide new insights into the interactions and toxic mechanisms of multiple metal combined pollution at the molecular level in plants.

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